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Turkey

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Quick Info

2.95 out of 5
WWF Country Risk Score
49 out of 248 Countries
WWF Country Rank
Total Organizations: 8
Total Projects: 16
Priority SDGs: Increase Access to Water, Sanitation, Hygiene (SDG 6.1 & 6.2)
Water Quality (SDG 6.3)
Water Use Efficiency (SDG 6.4)
Integrated Water Resource Management (SDG 6.5)
Water-Related Disaster Management (SDG 11.5)
Sustainable Production (SDG 12.4)
Climate Resilience and Adaptation (SDG 13.1)
Priority Regions: Tigris & Euphrates
Priority Industries: Agribusiness
Food and Beverage
Health Care
Other
Power and Utilities
Retail
Organization Types:
75%
Business
13%
Academia
13%
NGO / Civil Society
Profile Completion: 100%

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

No challenges found.

Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES Turkey is divided into 25 hydrological basins with large differences in specific discharge (GDRS, 2003). Most of Turkey’s rivers originate within the country. There are more than 120 natural lakes and 677 artificial lakes1. Total gross internal renewable water resources are estimated at 227km3/year. About 186km3 of this total is surface water, 69km3 is groundwater, while 28km3 is considered to be the overlap between surface water and groundwater. Of this 234km3, 112 km3 is considered to be the annual net amount of economically and technically exploitable water2. Average surface runoff entering the country from Bulgaria and Syria is 1.8km3/year – 0.6km3 from the Tunca River coming from Bulgaria and 1.2km3 from the Asi-Orontes coming from Syria. The Meriç River, originating in Bulgaria, forms the border between Greece and Turkey. It has a flow of 5.8km3/year, of which half (2.9km3/year) is allocated to Turkey. Adding the incoming flow to the internal renewable water resources brings the total natural renewable water resources to 231.7km3/year. Of the total flow of 53.74km3/year leaving the country, 28.1km3 flows to Syria (of which 26.29km3 is the natural outflow of the Euphrates), 21.33km3 to Iraq (Tigris and affluent), and 4.31km3 to Georgia. Groundwater flows to other countries are estimated at 11km3/year; this includes 1.2km3/year to the Khabour Springs, which feed the Khabour River in Syria and which have their origin in groundwater coming from Turkey. Taking into consideration the outflow and the flows reserved between countries, the total actual renewable water resources are 213.56km3/year. Turkey contributes about 89 per cent of the total annual flow of the Euphrates, while the remaining part originates in Syria; nothing is added further downstream in Iraq. Turkey contributes 38 per cent directly to the main Tigris River and another 11 per cent to its tributaries joining the main river further downstream in Iraq. In general, the streams and rivers vary greatly in their flow from season to season and from year to year. For example, the Euphrates’ annual flow at the border with Syria ranged from 15.3km3 in 1961 to 42.7km3 in 1963. 1. State Hydraulic Works, http://www2.dsi.gov.tr/topraksu.htm 2. State Hydraulic Works, http://www2.dsi.gov.tr/topraksu.htm

1.1.2.WATER USE In 2008, the total water withdrawal was estimated at 46km3/year, of which 74 per cent was for irrigation, 15 per cent for municipal use and 11 per cent for industrial purposes. Demand for groundwater is rapidly increasing, especially in areas where there is a lack or an extreme shortage of surface water. In 2000, a quarter of the total water withdrawal of 42km3 was from groundwater, of which 39 per cent was for irrigation, 37 per cent for municipal use and 24 per cent for industry. Apart from private initiatives for various purposes, the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (DSI) and former General Directorate of Rural Services (GDRS) had established irrigation facilities using groundwater to irrigate 5,058km2 of land (net irrigated area 4,341km2). Since 1975, non-conventional sources of water such as urban wastewater and drainage water have been used as water sources for irrigation. Urban wastewater discharged to the sewage systems was about 2.77km3 in 2006. The treated wastewater of about 1.68km3 is used in various ways. Its use for irrigation is limited to some dry provinces such as the central and south-eastern regions of Turkey, where almost 2,000km2 is irrigated by wastewater. In some irrigation areas, such as Seyhan and Harran, drainage water is used for irrigation during dry years at downstream end of the scheme where the water delivered is insufficient for irrigation. At present, no data for the amount of drainage water used for irrigation are available.

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Organizations in Turkey


Akenerji is the first power generation company founded as an auto-producer group in Turkey. One of the Turkish power sector’s biggest players, Akenerji is an integrated power company operating in wholesale energy trade in addition to power generation, with over ... Learn More

Anadolu Efes produces and markets beer and malt and non-alcoholic beverages in a wide geographical area comprising Turkey, Russia, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. Learn More

Brisa Bridgestone Sabancı Lastik Sanayi ve Ticaret AŞ is one of Europe's biggest top seven tyre manufacturing companies. The company is commited to using energy and resources effectively for a sustainable environment-friendly production. Learn More

ENKA is the largest construction company in Turkey and ranked among the ENR's Top International Contractors since 1982. Learn More

Established in 1946, Garanti Bank is Turkey’s second largest private bank with consolidated assets of nearly TL 385 billion (USD 84.3 billion) as of June 30, 2018. Garanti is an integrated financial services group operating in every segment of the ... Learn More

The Nature Conservation Centre aims to find solutions by seeking to understand the complexities of nature, fulfilling the multi disciplinary needs of nature conservation through wise use of scientific information and intelligent and creative adaptation of scientific approaches. Mission Through ... Learn More

At PepsiCo, water is fundamental to our ability to operate efficiently and vital to the communities we serve. Water stewardship is a central part of "Performance with Purpose" -- our mission to deliver sustainable growth by investing in a healthier ... Learn More

As a private school, we raise and educate our students to be global citizens who have awareness of world problems and we are eager to solve them. This year we are starting a project called "Kids who change the world".We ... Learn More

Projects in Turkey


We promote water management awareness-raising activities among our supply chain globally, led by Bridgestone. Moreover, our suppliers are requested to report on their water performance and are provided with support on how to effectively manage their water consumption. Project Results ... Learn More

Our sites continue to regularly engage with community members on our water use, treatment and impacts in order to strengthen our links with the local community. We have strong relationships with regulators and engage with public policy makers to ensure ... Learn More

Water risk is managed through engagement with local authorities on water pricing and through the implementation of initiatives that increase water efficiency and/or offer alternative sources of water. An example would be the company's effluent reduction and water re-use programme.Project ... Learn More

Every Drop Matters (EDM) is a unique partnership between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and The Coca-Cola Company, which works across Europe and the CIS, the Arab States and Asia. Since they joined forces in 2006, the partners have ... Learn More

In 2017, Inditex continued to integrate sustainability criteria for the use of water in all of its business areas, thanks to the implementation of its Global Water Management Strategy. The rational use of water and zero discharge commitment of undesirable ... Learn More

Anadolu Efes Turkey Istanbul Brewery has converted its cooling system of vacuum pumps in its bottle filling facility from an open loop to a closed loop system. Through this initiative, 13,000 m3 of water is saved annually. Anadolu Efes Russia ... Learn More

Energy is a vital source for the development of our country and to maintain the modern life style of human beings. We manage water by adapting generation plans in accordance with the inflow of data, weather forecasts and the water ... Learn More

In order to reduce the dependency on water withdrawal from groundwater sources, Brisa has conducted a feasibility study for installing an Industrial Wastewater Recovery Plant within its Izmit Production Facility (Marmara Basin) in order to reduce the water withdrawal demand. ... Learn More

This project sought to improve land and water use efficiency and improve the local ecosystem through a variety of conservation agricultural practices, including: direct seeded fields, wind breaks, crop rotation strategies, monitoring, and a crop calendar adapted to climate change. Learn More

Garanti has a dedicated Sustainability and Environment and Energy Efficiency teams that are responsible to apply for the Bank's environmental performance and ISO14001 compliance of all branches, buildings and personnel and improve environmental performance. With the effective use of online ... Learn More

Building on over a decade of focus on operational water efficiency, P&amp;G is now working towards a holistic water stewardship strategy throughout its value chain. An evaluation of water risks across the life cycle of its products helped P&amp;G select ... Learn More

Project WET is currently active in more than 75 countries around the world through a network of partner organizations that range from small NGOs to major international corporations and organizations. We only go where we’re invited! We work with our ... Learn More

At Kışladağ we use a site water balance model to increase the recycling and reuse of contact water, minimize groundwater consumption, and reduce risks attributable to overflow and supply constraints. The model helps us monitor our water reserves, adjust our ... Learn More

Through LightStay, every hotel in our portfolio is required to regularly report and monitor all sources of water use against an improvement goal. In addition to this, hotels are required to always have an active water-related sustainability improvement project registered. ... Learn More

Garanti Bank undertakes an Environmental and Social risk assessment during the due diligence phase of greenfield projects with an investment amount more than USD 10 mn. During this assessment, Garanti Bank supports its customers to better manage their water-related risks, ... Learn More

Bring the water quality from “low” to “good” status (according to the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization standards), especially in highly polluted critical spots; Create a basin wide partnership with agreed conservation targets in key biodiversity areas; reduce water, chemicals ... Learn More

Suggested Resources

View the full list of 300+ resources at the Water Stewardship Toolbox

This Working Paper proposes a method whereby any decision-maker can calculate the cost required to deliver sustainable water management to a geography. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

In this policy brief the ILO offers comprehensive and integrated recommendations on the key areas of policy action that should form part of that response.The brief is addressed at ILO constituents (governments, employers and workers), policy-makers and the general public. Learn More

Inform and strengthen your company’s water management strategies and allow your investors to evaluate current water management activities against detailed definitions of leading practice. Learn More

Developers: Ceres

In this Nature feature, Johan Rockstrom and co-authors argue that identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries that must not be transgressed could help prevent human activities from causing unacceptable environmental change. Learn More

Nature-based solution (NBS) can improve degraded ecosystems, help sequester carbon, and manage the effects of climate change, including extreme weather events. Businesses are beginning to recognize the value of NBS for climate change mitigation, adaptation, and resilience. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

Developed by a group of leading beverage businesses, this is an easy-to-use excel tool for beverage facilities to estimate direct costs associated with their most water- and resource- intensive processes, beyond just the cost of water from the tap. The ... Learn More

Plan, Prepare and Respond- Breakdown for different industries on how to operate safely. Cleaning and disinfecting, Worker Safety, Support Resources, Mitigation Strategy Learn More

An emphasis on gaps in WASH coverage and what role institutions play in battling COVID-19. Links and other resources provided. Learn More

This report presents analysis of the response data from a sample of 783 of the world’s largest publicly listed companies. The report is aimed at companies and investors seeking to understand how they can play their part in delivering a ... Learn More

The Toolbox connects your business to the latest tools, guidance, case studies, datasets, and more most relevant to you based on your circumstances and interests. It features more than 250+ resources from dozens of organizations and is updated every week. Learn More

Developers: CEO Water Mandate, Pacific Institute

Checklist for restoring water quality in buildings left unused for a long duration. Learn More

Developers: EPA Office of Wastewater Management

CDC/EPA Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfecting Includes Printable Materials Learn More

This report makes the case for private sector investment in green infrastructure as part of a broader water stewardship approach. Learn More

Developers: BHP

The purpose of these guidelines is to highlight additional measures so that the integrity of the food chain is maintained, and that adequate and safe food supplies are available for consumers. Learn More

Includes Immediate steps, ongoing health measures that can be taken, and responsible business practice Learn More

This document is intended for WASH and C4D officers at country offices working together on the Covid19 outbreak preparedness and response. The document contains guidance on reviewing existing resources and coordination mechanisms, identifying the right intervention and considerations for sustainability ... Learn More

Workers in office buildings may be at risk for exposure to the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Office building employers, building owners and managers, and building operations specialists can take steps to create a safe and healthy workplace ... Learn More

How to ensure the safety of your occupants and building water system and devices Learn More

CAIR-CA has put together the following guide to some of the resources for workers who have been impacted by COVID-19. Learn More

The campaigns, which target audiences at home and in schools, promote improved health and hygiene practices, such as handwashing, the importance of connecting to the water supply and sanitation system, regular payments for service continuity, and improving sanitation and menstrual ... Learn More

Constantly updated database for California nonprofits. Contains Advocacy and support links, funding opportunities, Federal resources and information, announcements and resources, employee and employer resources, and resources for individuals. Learn More

Based on the major combat guidelines set by the São Paulo State Government, Sabesp is fully engaged to endure COVID-19 pandemic within its operation area, which means 374 municipalities located throughout São Paulo state and home to about 28 million ... Learn More

Developers: Sabesp

Technical guidance, WASH preparedness, webinars, checklists for health facilities, self assessments, and guidance on disinfectants. Learn More

Best practices- Resources- Webinars on WASH/COVID-19 topics. Learn More

Urban stormwater is becoming an increasingly important alternative water supply in California. However, current economic analyses do not adequately evaluate co-benefits provided by different stormwater investments. As a result, urban stormwater capture is undervalued. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

NBS offer a promising contribution on how to enhance the availability and quality of water for productive purposes and human consumption, while preserving ecosystems. In this discussion paper, 21 case studies of water management processes are analysed, using a non-representative ... Learn More

FAO has been emphasizing the need to accelerate a global transition to sustainable food and agriculture systems, advocating an integrated approach. This document focuses on the management of water for agricultural use. Learn More

The purpose of this document is to provide ministries (e.g. Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Water (MOW)), sub-national public health authorities, and implementing partners with a practical framework of action to both prepare for and mitigate community transmission of ... Learn More

This document gives advice on: 1. Simple ways to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in your workplace 2. How to manage COVID-19 risks when organizing meetings &amp; events 3. Things to consider when you and your employees travel 4. Getting ... Learn More

The Global Water Footprint Assessment Standard can be used to provide comparable quantification and robust analytics, helping corporations, governments, and researchers manage water resources and achieve greater water sustainability. Learn More

This guide outlines why and how investors engage on agricultural supply chain water risk. Learn More

Developers: WWF

The Committee designed this document to guide the food industry and advise its sponsoring agencies in the implementation of HACCP systems. Learn More

In this link, you will find an overview of our measures and initiatives to support the health and livelihood of employees and communities in which we operate. Our three guiding principles: Health, safety, and trust of our people Safeguard the ... Learn More

Developers: Heineken

Om Prasad Gautam, Khairul Islam, and Erik Harvey discuss the importance of handwashing with soap and water in reducing the risk of infection from COVID-19 and highlight the water, sanitation, and hygiene sector can and should do in response to ... Learn More

Adapting to climate change, coupled with the need to address aging infrastructure, population growth, and degraded ecosystems, requires significant investment in natural and built water systems. These investments present a significant opportunity to support not only water, but to provide ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

To provide guidance and a global framework for the design, verification and scaling up of Nature-based Solutions. The Standard includes globally consistent Criteria and Indicators, which are supported by the Principles for Nature-based Solutions, to measure the strength of interventions. Learn More

Developers: International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

To help our partners in responding to this health crisis in their countries, we have compiled different resources and tools around COVID-19 and WASH, which include documents, videos, social media materials with messages on public health, webinar recordings, etc. Learn More

With special attention to resources for utilities, this page lists relevant guidance around water and COVID-19. Learn More

Developers: American Water Works Association

This page seeks to help water sector professionals keep informed on the attributions of the COVID-19 virus and any measures needed to protect both workers and public health, in general. Learn More

Resources for the Long Beach community. Covers topics such as: Movement Strategy, Family Resource Government Resources Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

National Register Resources: Psychological resources and information. Learn More

This article presents the state of knowledge with regard to human health and well-being from contact with nature. Learn More

The United Nations World Water Development Report for 2018. Learn More

With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their core operations. This guide is meant as a stepping point to begin reopening with safety as a ... Learn More

OSHA has developed this interim guidance to help prevent worker exposure to SARS-CoV-2. The general guidance below applies to all U.S. workers and employers. Learn More

During an infectious disease outbreak, such as the current outbreak of COVID-19, small business owners must prepare for disruption in their business as well as prepare to protect their employees’ health and safety in the workplace. These steps are recommended ... Learn More

Guidelines for supply chain workplaces to reopen with a robust WASH plan of action. Learn More

This report shows how putting nature to work can help deliver infrastructure services with greater impact and lower cost, all the while reducing risks from disaster, boosting water security and enhancing climate resilience. Learn More

The Coca-Cola Company is quantifying the water-related “Replenish” benefits derived through its Community Water Partnership (CWP) projects. The work described in this report builds on previous efforts, and provides a current status of quantification results for three categories of CWP ... Learn More

Developers: GETF, The Coca-Cola Company

Questions\ guidelines relating to food businesses answered by the WHO. Learn More

This guidance is intended for all Americans, whether you own a business, run a school, or want to ensure the cleanliness and safety of your home. Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

This report seeks to provide an overview of the three leading water tools available for corporate water risk assessment. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

SAVEh is the platform through which Ambev shares its water management system free of charge with other companies, which has helped to reduce more than 40% of the company’s water consumption in the last 13 years. This water efficiency tool ... Learn More

Developers: Ambev S/A

The Colorado River Basin states face significant water challenges, including the overallocation of water, long-term drought, and climate change. This report, commissioned by the Walton Family Foundation, explores the potential for corporate water stewardship to help solve these challenges. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The City of Austin, Texas is facing an increasingly uncertain water future, from decreasing water supplies and more intense droughts to periodic flooding and water quality impairments. Austin is addressing these challenges head on, from investments in water efficiency and ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Compass Business Tools inventory maps existing business tools against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It allows you to explore commonly used business tools that may be useful when assessing your organization’s impact on the SDGs. Learn More

The world’s water resources are under increasing pressure from rising water consumption, pollution, and climate variability. The variety of water challenges companies face, from water governance issues to extreme events like drought, manifest in the river basins where the companies ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

This report is a call to action, for the immediate health response required to suppress transmission of the virus to end the pandemic, and to tackle the many social and economic dimensions of this crisis. It is, above all, a ... Learn More

This report provides findings on good practices of AWS Standard implementation. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The Soil &amp; Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a small watershed to river basin-scale model used to simulate the quality and quantity of surface and ground water and predict the environmental impact of land use, land management practices and climate ... Learn More

In response to the challenge of quantifying the business benefits, WaterAid, Diageo, GAP Inc., and Unilever have worked with PwC and ODI to develop a practical, step-by-step guide. The guide will help companies understand the business value of their WASH ... Learn More

Developers: WaterAid

The Sustainable Rice Platform (SRP) Standard for Sustainable Rice Cultivation is the world’s first voluntary sustainability standard for rice. The standard is complemented by a set of 12 quantitative performance indicators. By identifying “hotspots,” the indicators enable users to monitor ... Learn More

The Forest Stewardship Council created the Principles of Forest Stewardship as a worldwide standard to promote environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world’s forests. Learn More

The AWS Standard is a globally-applicable framework for major water users to understand their water use and impacts, and to work collaboratively and transparently for sustainable water management within a catchment context. Learn More

Developers: Alliance for Water Stewardship

This paper provides examples of how to make progress in service delivery in and beyond the workplace. With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their ... Learn More

This special Academy session covered steps businesses can take to respect and support the rights and lives of women and girls during the COVID-19 pandemic. Learn More

This tool is an interactive map linking nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation outcomes based on a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

A deep dive into three areas for business action:1 Responsible Marketing 2 Accelerating Collaborative Action at the Country Level 3 Building Resilience and Good Practice Solutions for Business Learn More

This report explores the possibilities of scaling a circular economy, given the reality of the global economy and the complexity of multi-tier supply chains. Learn More

Developers: World Economic Forum

As the world’s largest corporate sustainability initiative, the United Nations Global Compact is calling on business leaders everywhere to unite to support workers, communities, and companies affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. A coordinated international plan involving the business sector will ... Learn More

This page brings together water and sanitation-related information from UN-Water Members and Partners in the light of the coronavirus global emergency. UN-Water is working to ensure the most up-to-date information, resources, and guidance as they become available. Learn More

Water is the lifeblood of California, providing for the household needs of 40 million people and supporting one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world, various commercial and industrial activities, and the health and viability of the state’s ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

New figures from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP) indicate that WASH services in health care facilities are sub-standard in every region. Learn More

Developers: UNICEF The United Nations Children's Fund

ILO Sectoral Policies and Governance and Tripartism Departments present four self-training modules, which adapt existing ILO training tools on OSH to provide governments, workers and employers with the necessary skills to implement the general principles contained in relevant ILO instruments. ... Learn More

To combat the spread of the COVID-19 virus and rebuild our economies during and after the pandemic, collective action on water is essential. Such action can help not only to contain the virus, but also to realize the human right ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

Companies are increasingly setting and pursing ‘water balance targets’ as part of their water stewardship strategies. The seeming simplicity of balance goals can be attractive – “we will restore a volume of water equal to the amount our business consumes.” ... Learn More

Developers: WWF

This report calls for an integrated approach that brings together governments, water users, and the society at large including the private sector, NGOs, and academia to design smart, adaptable and sustainable solutions for water infrastructure impacted by climate change. Learn More

The Water Risk Filter can be used to assess and respond to water related risks for your own operations, suppliers, or growth plans. Learn More

Developers: WWF

The Water Risk Filter can be used to assess and respond to water-related risks for your own operations, suppliers, or growth plans. Learn More

Developers: WWF

Safely managed water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services are an essential part of preventing and protecting human health during infectious disease outbreaks, including the current COVID-19 pandemic. Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

Outdoor Industry Association (OIA) Learn More

CTCN; UNEP Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Water Witness International; WaterAid; WBCSD Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

UNEP Learn More

IPIECA Learn More

Ecolab Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Pegasys; Water Witness International; WWF Learn More

The World Bank Learn More

UNEP-DHI Learn More

OECD Learn More

UNICEF; WHO Learn More

River Threat Netwrok Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; WWF Learn More

Swedish Textile Water Initiative Learn More

Alliance for Water Stewardship Learn More

WaterAid Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

McKinsey Learn More

Toilet Board Coalition Learn More

U.S. General Services Administration Learn More

National Drought Mitigation Center Learn More

USGS Learn More

UN Water Learn More

AT&T; EDF; Global Environmental Management Institute (GEMI) Learn More

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