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Area: 5888268 km2
Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
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City & Country

Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $2,047,233,660.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $321,662,654.00 - [16%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $504,679,782.00 - [25%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $7,828,737.00 - [0%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $257,701,805.00 - [13%]
  • Water Scarcity: $614,155,072.00 - [30%]
  • Water Management: $341,205,610.00 - [17%]

For more about this data, see information on WRI’s Achieving Abundance dataset here.

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

Local Water Resource Governance
Access to Water Supply and Water Services
Physical water supply
Compliance with Local Regulations and Widely-Accepted Standards
Land Use Issues
Socioeconomic and Reputation
Upstream Water Issues

Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES Average annual precipitation in Nepal is around 1,500mm. The country has more than 6,000 rivers, which form a dense network with steep topographic conditions. All rivers in Nepal drain into the Ganges River. The country is divided into five river basins. From west to east, these are: -The Mahakali river basin, shared with India. It has an average flow from the Indian tributaries into the border river of 15km3/yr, with some 3.4km3/yr from the Nepalese tributaries; -The Karnali river basin, with an estimated average outflow of 43.9km3/yr; -The Gandaki river basin, with an estimated average outflow of 50.7km3/yr; -The Kosi river basin, with an estimated average outflow of 47.2km3/yr. Some 12km3/yr comes from the upper catchment area in China; -The southern river basins, which produce around 65km3/yr flowing into India. Flow is extremely variable depending on the season. It might be as low as 1.5-2.4 per cent of the total runoff in January, February and March, and as high as 20-27 per cent in July and August for snowed rivers. Corresponding figures for purely rain-fed rivers are 0.5-3 per cent from March to May and 19-30 per cent in July and August. Internal surface water resources are estimated at 198.2km3/yr. Groundwater resources have not been fully assessed. Ongoing studies show that there is good potential for groundwater extraction, especially in the southern terai lowland plains and inner valleys of the mountainous regions. Deep or shallow aquifers underlie much of the terai physiographic region and some parts of Siwalik valleys. Many of these are suitable for exploitation as sources of irrigation water. A rough estimate can be made by assuming a groundwater resource equivalent to 10 per cent of surface water, i.e. approximately 20km3/yr, which corresponds to the base flow of the rivers. Total internal water resources would therefore amount to 198.2km3/yr. Chinese statistics mention an average outflow to Nepal of 12km3/yr, which brings total renewable water resources of Nepal to 210.2km3/yr. It is assumed that all Nepal’s renewable water resources flow out to India. In 1995, total dam capacity was 85 million m3, although potential exists for at least 138km3. Hydroelectricity accounted for more than 96 per cent of total electricity generation. The two main diversion barrages are the Kosi and Gandaki reservoirs.

1.1.2.WATER USE In 2000, estimated total water withdrawal was 101.8 million km3. Some 96.5 per cent was for agriculture, 2.9 per cent for municipalities and 0.6 per cent for industry. All water withdrawn was fresh water. Water for the domestic sector comes from sources such as springs, open wells, tubewells, rivers, streams, traditional stone taps and modern piped systems.

1.2.WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH Major environmental problems in Nepal include: deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal waste, agricultural runoff and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; and vehicular emissions. The 1994 Environmental Action Plan provided some guidelines for both integrated water resources management and maintaining the water quality at the river basin level. Although there has been a revised Environment Protection/Conservation Act since 1996/97, formulating working rules, defining accountability at various levels of governance and naming agencies to implement the Act has not yet happened.

Country Water Profile

Coming Soon

Organizations in Nepal

Antea Group is an international engineering and environmental consulting firm with access to more than 3,000 consultants in over 100 offices around the world. Our Sustainability Practice brings together management consultants and technical experts offering solutions from strategy through implementation … Learn More

El grupo Biosfera, es un think tank en investigacion de futuros sustentables. (BIOSFERA, INVESTIGACIÓN DE FUTUROS) es un equipo de análisis cuyo core business es la investigación prospectiva para la construcción de futuros deseables (futurables), asociados a la sustentabilidad (planeamiento … Learn More

Transforming a Billion Lives. We are a Singapore-based socially purposed company on a mission to "Transform a Billion Lives". We operate at the intersection of climate action, social impact, and capital efficiency. We design, operate and finance distributed infrastructure projects … Learn More

Centre for Responsible Business (CRB) is an independent organization based out of New Delhi, India. CRB was incubated by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) over 3 years period (2010-2013) as part of German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and … Learn More

The Council on Energy, Environment and Water (http://ceew.in/) is an independent, not-for-profit policy research institution. CEEW addresses pressing global challenges through an integrated and internationally focused approach. It does so through high quality research, partnerships with public and private institutions, … Learn More

Main focus is SUDS retrofit to tackle flooding and water quality problems in the City of Coventry, UK, and to provide biodiversity and amenity benefits to wildlife and citizens. Coventry has Living Lab Status and the group includes Coventry University … Learn More

EWB-India has been established as a non-profit Society, Under the Society’s Act, to involve engineers, and other professionals with special or general skills, in a movement of constructive change. It is inspired by an urgent concern for accelerating sustainable rural … Learn More

Vision Civilized society will be formed with healthy people by universal access of safe drinking water, good sanitation and hygiene. Mission Provision of safe drinking water, good sanitation and hygiene will be guaranteed by effective participation of users in policy … Learn More

First Climate is a globally leading provider of water project development and carbon offset services. We help our corporate clients across Europe, Asia-Pacific and the US to get engaged in water stewardship activities and manage and compensate their carbon emissions. … Learn More

Gravity Water turns rain into safe water for schools in need. This approach helps strategic partners achieve net-zero water goals through metered rainwater offsetting while also providing safe drinking water access to students at schools in need. Learn More

HYDROC is an association of independent consultants, -scientists and -engineers, providing water-related services through a network of national and international experts. Our concept uses the synergies of our combined expertise for the successful implementation of a variety of projects. Our … Learn More

Educational Institute Learn More

Since its foundation in May 2007, HYTECON has generated an established market position within the field of consulting services for water and technical hygiene related aspects, focussing especially on innovative and customer-oriented solutions. A highly experienced team of microbiologists and … Learn More

Purpose of the organization is to promote socio, economic and cultural advancement of weaker sections by education, training, research and field action programs. Specific focus is to promote awareness on water sanitation among rural poor communities and help them to … Learn More

IWMI is one of 15 international research centers supported by the network of 60 governments, private foundations and international and regional organizations collectively known as CGIAR. It is a non-profit organization with a staff of 350 and offices in over … Learn More

BETTER public private partnership, with partner company John Todd Ecological Design, involved in sustainable water and wastewater and waste to food design and project development worldwide. See www.betterp3.com and www.toddecological.com Learn More

Muslim Business Council of India is a not for profit dedicated corporate advocacy public body incorporated under section 25 of the Companies Act 1956 by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India, to promote Muslim owned Businesses, Trade, Commerce … Learn More

We are an independent research institute that focuses on the legal challenges facing water supply infrastructure projects. The world's water infrastructure must adapt to climate change and extreme supply variations, and we research the legal road-blocks that stand in the … Learn More

The Diocese of Satna, which was bifurcated from the Diocese of Jabalpur, came into existence the year 1977. Social Work activities had been initiated since its inception in the year 1968 as an Exarchate. “Samaritan Social Service Society”, the social … Learn More

SaniWater Solutions is a joint partnership consulting firm providing services on contract and/or on commission basis in the area of environment, hygiene, Sanitation and Water. Our Vision: To be a lead organisation in providing solutions for ensuring safe water hygiene … Learn More

CAWST, the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology, is a non-profit organization that provides training and consulting to organizations that work directly with populations in developing countries who lack access to clean water and basic sanitation. CAWST "walks beside" … Learn More

India's 1st Green Business School, built by CEOs who have led multi billion dollar businesses in over 100 countries, situated close to Mumbai. It is focused on Sustainability and is practicing Rain Water Harvesting on Campus. Learn More

Research Learn More

Our goal is to help improve poor people's, drinking water, quality education, health, and livelihood living who live in the rural areas of Nepal. WCA-Nepal was doing different project activities in the rural areas of Nepal. now we are searching … Learn More

Projects in Nepal

Since 2016 the Toilet Board Coalition’s accelerator program has been supporting entrepreneurs with bespoke mentorship, partnership and the visibility to scale their sanitation economy businesses. More than toilets alone, we look for commercially viable businesses across the sanitation economies – … Learn More

This project aims to contribute to Nepal WASH program by strengthening local governance on WASH sector through formation and development of WASH institutions at local level. Learn More

Project completed Peru: course conducted on the 'Community-Based Risk Screening Tool; Adaptation and Livelihoods' (CRiSTAL) with the key stakeholders in the Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve (the city of Lima's water catchment area), in order to assess the social dimensions of … Learn More

In Nepal we are installing contactless handwashing stations in public spaces. A contactless handwashing station is a simple mechanism operated by foot. Users can access soap and water using the foot pump, avoiding touching taps and other surfaces that could … Learn More

Semi-urban model lift water system has been constructed by deep boring up-to 55 mts. deep & found 8 lps. discharge capacity of this source. Aim of this water system is to have access to safe drinking water and maintain personal … Learn More

The programme is working in 7 countries in Africa and Asia (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Nepal, Tanzania, Uganda & Zambia). As per the recent baseline survey conducted by WAI at all four intervention area, there is a huge need for improved … Learn More

The project aims to aid in forming Child Clubs in a remote, poor area in Nepal to spread and promote sanitation and hygiene behavior. For each of the 8 schools selected sanitation facilities will be set up. Learn More

The project aims to empower and unify the users committee to protect, promote and fulfill the rights of water and sanitation for the sustainability and access of all people in WASH services by the means of advocacy. The program mainly … Learn More

Nepal is one of the least-developed countries of the world. Estimates show that nearly 31 per cent of the population lives below the national poverty line, and 24 per cent live with less than a dollar per day income. The … Learn More

With the aim to encourage the local people of Butwal and Tilotama Municipality for the proper management of solid waste and sanitation in the face of it's commercialization in term of organic manure and organic fertilizer production along with the … Learn More

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The WAI stands for a shift from the dominant hardware-construction approach, often used by others, towards WASH sector development by working on three pillars: establishing a functioning market, strengthening the public sector, and empowering & organising citizens. Our innovative approach … Learn More

The programme has the main objective to reduce poverty and improve health, environmental and economic conditions in the Mid-Far Western Regions by empowering people and creating an enabling environment, thus achieving increased sustainable access to and use of safe water … Learn More

The project will support around 31 communities in 6 VDC's (village development committees) to obtain access to safe drinking water and environmental sanitation, to manage these systems effectively and practice key hygiene behaviour. Learn More

The programme has the main objective to reduce poverty and improve health, environmental and economic conditions in the Mid-Far Western Regions by empowering people and creating an enabling environment, thus achieving increased sustainable access to and use of safe water … Learn More

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Sankalpa Nepal

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