UN Global Compact  |  CEO Water Mandate

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Area: 5888268 km2
Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
HydroBasin Level:
Baseline Water Stress:
Water Quality Stress:
Sanitation Access Stress:
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City & Country

Quick Info

2.74 out of 5
WWF Country Risk Score
87 out of 248 Countries
WWF Country Rank
Total Organizations: 8
Total Projects: 15
Priority SDGs: Sustainable Agriculture (SDG 2.4)
Increase Access to Water, Sanitation, Hygiene (SDG 6.1 & 6.2)
Water Quality (SDG 6.3)
Water Use Efficiency (SDG 6.4)
Integrated Water Resource Management (SDG 6.5)
Protect and Restore Ecosystems (SDG 6.6)
International Cooperation and Capacity Building (SDG 6.a)
Stakeholder Participation (SDG 6.b)
Water-Related Disaster Management (SDG 11.5)
Sustainable Production (SDG 12.4)
Climate Resilience and Adaptation (SDG 13.1)
Priority Regions: South Africa
Priority Industries: Apparel
Biotech, health care & pharma
Food, beverage & agriculture
Power generation
Organization Types:
NGO / Civil Society
Coalition / Consortium
International Organization
Multi-stakeholder Organization
Utility / Water Service Provider
Profile Completion: 73%

Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $3,035,666,452.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $1,025,494,286.00 - [34%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $883,176,701.00 - [29%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $65,378,084.00 - [2%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $425,393,969.00 - [14%]
  • Water Scarcity: $130,279,004.00 - [4%]
  • Water Management: $505,944,409.00 - [17%]

For more about this data, see information on WRI’s Achieving Abundance dataset here.

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

Local Water Resource Governance
Upstream Water Issues

Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES Mozambique has 104 identified river basins that drain the central African highland plateau into the Indian Ocean. The majority of the rivers have a highly seasonal, torrential flow regime, with high waters during 3-4 months and low flows for the remainder of the year, corresponding to the distinct wet and dry seasons. Groundwater potential is considerable and lies in the alluvial formations of the various rivers. Well yields in the Zambezi and Incomati basins are up to 70,000 m3/day. In Mozambique, 97.3km3 of surface water and 17km3 of groundwater are produced annually. Considering an overlap between surface water and groundwater of 14km3/yr, the total internal renewable water resources are 100.3km3/yr. In addition, 116.8km3 of surface water enter the country annually, of which 66 per cent come from the Zambezi River, and thus total actual renewable water resources become 217.1km3/yr. The two main lakes are Lake Niassa (Lake Malawi) and Lake Chirua (Lake Chilwa), both of which are shared with Malawi. The total surface area of Lake Niassa is 30,800km2, of which 21 per cent belongs to Mozambique. Lake Chirua has an average total area of 750km2 of which no more than 29km2 are within Mozambique. In addition to the two main lakes, there are more than 1,300 small lakes, 20 of which have an area of between 10 and 100km2. The total useful storage capacity of 27 dams (hydro and ?) with a height of 10m or more is estimated at 64.5km3. This refers mostly to the useful reservoir capacity. The Cahora Bassa dam on the Zambezi River is the largest hydroelectric plant in southern Africa with an installed capacity of 2060MW and a useful storage capacity of 39.2km3. In 1971, 583 small dams (of which 90 per cent were for irrigation or livestock watering) were registered, with a total volume of 60 million m3. It is believed that most of them were destroyed during the war.

1.1.2.WATER USE Water use estimates for the year 2000 indicate a total water withdrawal of 635 million m3. The main consumer of water is agriculture, accounting for 550 million m3 (87 per cent), followed by the municipal sector using 70 million m3 (11 per cent) and industry consuming 15 million m3 (2 per cent). The main source of water in Mozambique is surface water. However, groundwater is utilized on a large scale in a number of urban centres for drinking water supply. Hand pump-mounted boreholes and shallow wells are used throughout the country as the main source of drinking water in rural areas.

1.2.WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH A long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences. Major environmental problems are desertification; and pollution of surface and coastal waters. Water abstraction upstream from hydropower and agriculture results in downstream issues such as too little water for local use and lower pressure against salt intrusion from the sea, as well as too much water which cause unexpected flooding. The pollution of water from agriculture is not significant, because most production is by smallholders, whose level of fertilizer use and other artificial input is low. Saline soils do occur in some areas in the country as a result of poor water management or the use of saline water for irrigation (for example, parts of the Chokwé irrigation scheme). However, there are also areas where saline soils occur naturally in Mozambique. This situation is common in the dry zone in the southern part of the country, in the Gaza province in the area of Pafuri, where rainfall is below 400mm. Despite the lack of specific studies carried out in the irrigation schemes on prevailing diseases, it has been asserted that the prevalence of water communicable diseases tends to be worsened by irrigation. The diseases commonly associated with irrigation are malaria, diarrhoea, cholera and to a lesser extent bilharzia.

Country Water Profile

Coming Soon

Organizations in Mozambique

Aqua for All is a not-for-profit organisation operating in Africa and Asia. For almost two decades, we have worked towards catalysing an innovative, sustainable and inclusive water and sanitation economy worldwide. We believe that innovation, scalable solutions, and public and … Learn More

We form part of the Barnes Group of Companies. We leverage our ability off owning our own steel manufacturing mill, which then supplies into our wholly owned primary manufacturing companies, who then produce standard and customer specific products which are … Learn More

Use spatial data to support business decision in the following areas: nature based solutions, climate change, land use land cover, watershed conservation and management, environmental sensitization, nature conservation and planning Learn More

HYDROC is an association of independent consultants, -scientists and -engineers, providing water-related services through a network of national and international experts. Our concept uses the synergies of our combined expertise for the successful implementation of a variety of projects. Our … Learn More

Wastewater treatment and reuse is the primary mission of Tankerwala. Apart from in-site recycling, transporting the treated water from water reclamation plants to construction sites and parks for irrigation on water trucks is the moat of the company. Learn More

The Water Resilience Coalition, founded in 2020, is an industry-driven, CEO-led coalition of the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate that aims to elevate global water stress to the top of the corporate agenda and preserve the world's freshwater resources … Learn More

To ensure clean water through the ongoing repair and maintenance of water boreholes under a long-term maintenance programme of up to twenty years. These repairs will be carried out at no cost to the community or donor. We are happy … Learn More

A research and advocacy charity working for equitable and sustainable water resource management. We work with all water users to support objective understanding of opportunities and barriers to progress, and to galvanise action based on reliable evidence, transperancy and accountability. Learn More

Projects in Mozambique

This area outside Maputo (Moçambique) became very popular again since the Chinese finished the road to Ponta Doura and South Africa. Before the road has been finished this area was difficult to reach due to poor road conditions. In 2014 … Learn More

CPWF (challenge programme for water and food) is an international, multi-institutional research initiative with a strong emphasis on north-south and south-south partnerships. The initiative brings together research scientists, development specialists, and river basin communities in Africa, Asia and Latin America … Learn More

The BJF was founded in 2009 to support what was then still a scientific plan: the restoration of native trees through the degraded Araguaia Biodiversity Corridor in Brazil, the worldÕs longest nature corridor, connecting two of the worldÕs most vital … Learn More

Organise short term missions of Dutch experts that visit FIPAG Region North (FRN) to give training to local staff from different departments - Set up and execute Non Revenue Water reducing pilots - Support FRN with the mapping of new … Learn More

Human Resource Capacity Assessments performed by IWA in the water and sanitation sector of 15 countries revealed gaps in the availability and quality of the workforce and in particular poor levels of participation by women. The water sector lacks skilled … Learn More

This project will contribute to reducing poverty and enhancing food, health and nutritional security in the Limpopo River Basin by analysing the status of agricultural water use, access and productivity, and identifying opportunities for improved agricultural water management. Project Results … Learn More

The project aimed to build awareness and capacity for environmental flows assessment in the basin and identify institutional and legal mechanisms for mainstreaming environmental flows. Interest in environmental flows in the region had been promoted by the South African Water … Learn More

In Mozambique, we support initiatives aimed at guaranteeing equitable access to drinking water and improve sanitation and hygiene services for all local communities. Since the start of the program, 75,000 people have benefited from the rehabilitation of over 100 water … Learn More

By 2030 Nazava Water Filters aims to be the number one water filter for the Base of the income pyramid (BOP) impacting 10 million people with dafe affodable water. Project Results People with improved heath: 10 million Accumalative cost savings: … Learn More

In Maputo and Nampula, the HEINEKEN Africa Foundation supported WaterAid to install 320 handwashing facilities at marketplaces and healthcare facilities to protect people from COVID-19. Around 350 community mobilisers have been trained to support the maintenance of the equipment. Learn More

Water scarcity is an increasing phenomenon that already affects 4 billion people today. Water resources are becoming scarcer due to population growth, an increased water footprint and climate change. The key objective of this project is to get sustainable access … Learn More

WaterAid is an international NGO focused exclusively on ensuring equitable access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene education (WASH) for the world’s poorest communities. Formed in 1981 we have been working in water, sanitation and hygiene for over 30 years. … Learn More

The World Vision Midline Evaluation is meant to assess World Vision programme with respect to the utilization of WaSH resources, the effectiveness of programming, and the success of WaSH interventions in achieving World Visions Child Wellbeing Targets (CWBTs) in Mozambique. … Learn More

VEI in collaboration with the Dutch consortium WWn / SNV / BopInc, supports asset manager AIAS in improving access to water and sanitation services in small towns of Mozambique. The project consists of four work packages: Organizational development AIAS, Operator … Learn More

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