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Area: 5888268 km2
Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
HydroBasin Level:
Baseline Water Stress:
Water Quality Stress:
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City & Country

Quick Info

3.31 out of 5
WWF Country Risk Score
16 out of 248 Countries
WWF Country Rank
Total Organizations: 15
Total Projects: 15
Priority SDGs: Sustainable Agriculture (SDG 2.4)
Increase Access to Water, Sanitation, Hygiene (SDG 6.1 & 6.2)
Water Quality (SDG 6.3)
Water Use Efficiency (SDG 6.4)
Integrated Water Resource Management (SDG 6.5)
Protect and Restore Ecosystems (SDG 6.6)
International Cooperation and Capacity Building (SDG 6.a)
Stakeholder Participation (SDG 6.b)
Water-Related Disaster Management (SDG 11.5)
Sustainable Production (SDG 12.4)
Climate Resilience and Adaptation (SDG 13.1)
Priority Regions: --
Priority Industries: Apparel
Biotech, health care & pharma
Food, beverage & agriculture
Power generation
Organization Types:
Bilateral and / or Intergovernmental Agency
International Organization
NGO / Civil Society
Multi-stakeholder Organization
Utility / Water Service Provider
Profile Completion: 91%

Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $8,440,160,056.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $1,277,799,363.00 - [15%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $2,117,732,721.00 - [25%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $1,072,443,996.00 - [13%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $718,109.00 - [0%]
  • Water Scarcity: $2,564,772,525.00 - [30%]
  • Water Management: $1,406,693,343.00 - [17%]

For more about this data, see information on WRI’s Achieving Abundance dataset here.

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

Access to Water Supply and Water Services
Physical water supply
Water Demand and Competition among Users
Compliance with Local Regulations and Widely-Accepted Standards
Local Water Resource Governance
Socioeconomic and Reputation
Land Use Issues
Upstream Water Issues
Water Pricing

Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES The Egyptian territory comprises the following river basins: -The Northern Interior Basin in the east and southeast of the country, covering 520,881km2 or 52 per cent of the total area of the country. A sub-basin of the Northern Interior Basin is the Qattara Depression; -The Nile Basin, covering 326,751km2 (33 per cent) in the central part of the country in the form of a broad north-south strip; -The Mediterranean Coast Basin, covering 65,568km2 (6 per cent); and -The Northeast Coast Basin, a narrow strip of 88,250km2 along the coast of the Red Sea (8 per cent). The River Nile is the main source of water for Egypt, with an annual allocated flow of 55.5km3/year under the Nile Waters Agreement of 1959. Internal renewable surface water resources are estimated at 0.5km3/year. This brings total actual renewable surface water resources to 56km3/year. Internal renewable groundwater resources are estimated at 1.3km3/year. The overlap between surface water and groundwater being considered negligible, the total actual renewable water resources of the country are thus 57.3km3/year. The Nubian Sandstone aquifer located under the Western Desert is considered an important groundwater source, but this is fossil groundwater. The main source of internal recharge is percolation from irrigation water in the Valley and the Delta. All drainage water in Upper Egypt, south of Cairo, flows back into the Nile and the irrigation canals; this amount is estimated at 4km3/year. Drainage water in the Nile Delta is estimated at 14km3/year. Treated municipal wastewater in 2001/02 was estimated at 2.97km3/year. There are several desalination plants on the coasts of the Red Sea and the Mediterranean to provide water for seaside resorts and hotels; total production in 2002 was estimated at 100 million m3. Estimates of the potential of non-renewable groundwater in the eastern and western deserts, mainly from the Nubian Sandstone aquifer, vary from 3.8km3/year to 0.6km3/year; the latter estimate is defined as an indicator of exploitability over a period of time, where the time is not given.

1.1.2.WATER USE Total water withdrawal in 2000 was estimated at 68.3km3. This included 59km3 for agriculture (86 per cent), 5.3km3 for municipalities (8 per cent) and 4km3 for industry (6 per cent). Apart from that, 4km3 were used for navigation and hydropower. Groundwater extraction in 2000 was 7.043km3 comprising: -6.127km3 from the Nile Basin (seepage waters); -0.825km3 from the eastern and western deserts, i.e. mainly the Nubian Sandstone aquifer; and -0.091km3 from shallow wells in Sinai and on the northwestern coast. Reuse of agricultural drainage water, returned to the rivers in irrigation amounted to 4.84km3/yr in 2001/02. Of the 2.97km3/yr of treated wastewater, 1.5km3/yr is reused for irrigation, while the rest is pumped into main drains where it mixes with drainage water and is then used for irrigation. Treated wastewater is usually used for landscape irrigation of trees in urban areas and along roads.

1.2.WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH Major environmental problems are increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; the limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources. Salinity and waterlogging are now under control in about 80 per cent of the affected areas following the installation of drainage systems. This has led to a reduction in saline areas from about 12,000km3 in 1972 to 2,500km3 at present. Seawater intrusion is a problem in the northern part of the Delta, where groundwater becomes brackish to saline. About half of the Delta contains brackish to saline groundwater, and no water is pumped in the northern Delta. Average salinity of groundwater in the Delta was between 680 and 1,170 mg/litre in 2000/01. It is said that the rice belt is a major defence factor to keep salinity under control in the northern areas of the Nile Delta, as well as to stop the invasion of seawater further inland in the Delta aquifer. The salinity of agricultural drainage water is higher in winter, especially downstream, because less water is used for irrigation. In the new Al Salam Canal, drainage water is mixed with Nile water at a ratio of 1:1, and the salinity of the mixed water is within safe levels. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. The Ministry of the Environment is observing the enforcement of the new legislation regarding the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. MALR is also advocating organic farming and limiting the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to reduce crop, soil and water pollution. In addition, present policy is to minimize the use of herbicides and to depend mainly on the mechanized control of submerged weeds and water hyacinths. Bilharzia, or schistosomiasis, is still a common disease in rural areas in Egypt but its occurrence has greatly decreased with the provision of improved drinking water to most rural areas, periodic examination of school children, free medical treatment and extension programmes to educate people on ways of protecting against the disease. The Ministry of Health and Population Country Overview - Egypt announced that bilharzia cases in the examined samples of rural population in 2001 were only about 4 per cent. Malaria is rare in Egypt.

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Organizations in Egypt

#ClearWaterInitiative is an extension of the Fish Foundation Global Nation Foundation's program known as “Transformation of Nations.” It's a clear precise mission and purpose through our unique structured water device providing healthy water that increases oxygen, decrease dehydration restores healthy … Learn More

We want to transform healthcare, change the lives of billions of people for the better and address some of the biggest healthcare challenges facing humankind. Our ambition is to stop the progress of these often degenerative, debilitating, and life-threatening conditions, … Learn More

Utilising the natural resource that is sub seabed water and capitalising on the naturally filtered qualities to provide sustainable affordable upstream utilities Learn More

French multinational food-products corporation based in Paris. With four business lines: Fresh Dairy products, Waters, Early Life Nutrition and Medical Nutrition. Our mission is to bring health by food to as many people as possible. Learn More

Elmoustkbal online newspaper: Our main slogan since we first published is "Independence is our source of power "..Since it was first published till now “Elmoustkbal newspaper” has taken this slogan “Independence is our source of power” to express the approach … Learn More

GSK is a science-led global healthcare company – with three world-leading businesses – that researches, develops and manufactures innovative pharmaceutical medicines, vaccines and consumer healthcare products. Fresh water is critical to achieving universal health coverage, to providing sanitation facilities, and … Learn More

Water Shortages and Other Issues in Yemen &amp; the MENA Region Aim Starting with Yemen and the MENA region, 3G4CSI strives to: (1) Make electricity, drinking water and sanitation available to everyone in Yemen, the MENA region and everywhere else … Learn More

HYDROC is an association of independent consultants, -scientists and -engineers, providing water-related services through a network of national and international experts. Our concept uses the synergies of our combined expertise for the successful implementation of a variety of projects. Our … Learn More

We are forming a coalition in Kibera in cooperation with the Governor of Nairobi--Evans Kidero- and the staff of Nairobi City-County, owners of Nairobi City Water and Sewerage Company, to design clean water distribution, sewage and waste treatment, and floodwater … Learn More

Jamko's first priority in water's crisis is to expose, research and advertise water topics and natural disasters of the affected countries to social media. Our major priority is to raise funds through requesting donation from all social media and all … Learn More

تعليم ، قاضي تقليدي ، استشارة Learn More

Water stewardship has long been one of PepsiCo’s top priorities, and it's an important part of building a Positive Value Chain. As one of the first companies of our size to acknowledge water as a human right, we have a … Learn More

UNDP partners with people at all levels of society to help build nations that can withstand crisis, and drive and sustain the kind of growth that improves the quality of life for everyone. On the ground in more than 170 … Learn More

UNRWA is a United Nations agency established by the General Assembly in 1949 and mandated to provide assistance and protection to some 5 million registered Palestine refugees. Its mission is to help Palestine refugees in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, West Bank … Learn More

Our Vision is widespread implementation of sustainable chemistry, driving innovations and best practices in textile, apparel and footwear industries to protect consumers, workers and the environment. Our Mission is to enable brands and retailers in the textile, apparel, and footwear … Learn More

Projects in Egypt

Cemex has partnered with governments in Spain, Mexico, Egypt, and others to deliver soap and water and sanitize markets, university campuses, hospital entrances, and other public areas. Cemex has also set up sanitation tents in the Philippines and distributed hundreds … Learn More

Our digital farming platform Field Viewª enables seamless linking and unlimited storage of machine-generated agronomic data on farmersÕ accounts. The application of this data not only helps farmers, but also creates substantial advantages for the environment. Precision agricultural machinery and … Learn More

Providing household water connections to 1,500 impoverished families or approximately 7,500 people, this program is increasing access to safe drinking water in communities of Beni Suef. The project is also building the capacities of community development associations to become active … Learn More

Our main slogan since we first published is "Independence is our source of power "..Since it was first published till now “Elmoustkbal newspaper” has taken this slogan “Independence is our source of power” to express the approach the editorial department … Learn More

L’Oréal’s has launched solidarity plans across its many international locations, including Egypt, the Ukraine, Brazil, and South Africa to support the global fight against COVID-19. It has shifted production in 28 factories to produce hand sanitizer, much of which will … Learn More

Beheira Water and Drainage Company, Egyptian Government, GIZ (DeutscheGesellschaftfürInternationaleZusammenarbeit) Learn More

Agriculture Research Center(ARC), Field Crop Research Institute Learn More

Egypt has limited water resources and the protection of these resources from pollution, depletion and degradation is a high priority for the country’s national water strategy. Water scarcity in Egypt collides with rapid population growth and increasing water demand. In … Learn More

Project WET is currently active in more than 75 countries around the world through a network of partner organizations that range from small NGOs to major international corporations and organizations. We only go where we’re invited! We work with our … Learn More

We will engage with the suppliers to better understand their contextual situation and promote an adequate solution to mitigate the risk identified. Using our internal experience in aride regions, we could support farmers to improve resilience to water issues and … Learn More

Electrolux tracks and follows water consumption on a monthly basis, and has implemented a water best practice toolbox. Electrolux has carried out a water risk study based WWFs water risk filter, to identify sites where water shortages pose risks to … Learn More

Through LightStay, every hotel in our portfolio is required to regularly report and monitor all sources of water use against an improvement goal. In addition to this, hotels are required to always have an active water-related sustainability improvement project registered. … Learn More

The Water Ethics Network facilitates sharing of experience, ideas and information about events and activities relating to water ethics. The aim is to bring water ethics into everyday discourse of water policies and management decisions so that choices about water … Learn More

Bangladesh is experiencing one of the worst humanitarian crises in history. Since August 2017, Bangladesh has seen an unprecedented influx of Rohingya refugees fleeing violence in MyanmarÕs Rakhine State. Among the nearly 1 million Rohingya refugees now residing in the … Learn More

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Mona Mohamed Amin Abdel-Fatah
Atef Ghandour
Water Action Hub Team
Primary Contact  
Yehia Zakariaa

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