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Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

Access to Water Supply and Water Services
Land Use Issues
Local Water Resource Governance

Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES Ethiopia is endowed with a substantial amount of water resources. The surface water resource potential is impressive, but little developed. The country possesses 12 major river basins, which form four major drainage systems: -The Nile basin (including Abbay or Blue Nile, Baro-Akobo, Setit-Tekeze/Atbara and Mereb) covers 33 per cent of the country and drains the northern and central parts westwards; -The Rift Valley (including Awash, Denakil, Omo-Gibe and Central Lakes) covers 28 per cent of the country; -The Shebelli-Juba basin (including Wabi-Shebelle and Genale-Dawa) covers 33 per cent of the country and drains the southeastern mountains towards Somalia and the Indian Ocean; -The North-East Coast (including the Ogaden and Gulf of Aden basins) covers 6 per cent of the country. Integrated development master plan studies and related river basin surveys undertaken at the end of the 1990s indicate that the aggregate annual runoff from nine Ethiopian river basins is about 122km3. The Abbay, Baro-Akobo and Omo-Gibe basins account for about 76 per cent of the total runoff from an area that is only 32 per cent of the total area of the country. Most of the rivers in Ethiopia are seasonal and about 70 per cent of the total runoff is obtained during the period JuneAugust. Dry season flow originates from springs which provide baseflows for small-scale irrigation. The groundwater potential of the country is not known with any certainty, but so far only a small fraction of the groundwater has been developed and this mainly for local water supply purposes. Traditional wells are widely used by nomads. Neither desalinization nor treatment of wastewater is practised in Ethiopia. Intense rainfall sometimes causes flooding particularly along the Awash River and in the lower Baro-Akobo and Wabe-Shebelle river basins, causing damage to standing crops and infrastructures. The construction of dykes mitigated the problem but has not provided a longlasting solution. Ethiopia has several lakes (an area of about 7,000km2), a number of saline and crater lakes as well as several wetland areas. All the lakes, except Lake Tana which is the source of the Abbay River in the Nile Basin, are found in the Rift Valley and among these lakes only Zway has fresh water while the others are all saline. Rising water levels in Lake Tana and Lake Awassa after intense rainfall have been creating concern. Large wetlands serve as a source of water for large rivers, flood retention and groundwater recharge. They are critical resources because they are areas of high biodiversity and are often vital to the livelihood strategies of local communities through the provision of environmental services and socio-economic benefits. Ethiopia has so far put no emphasis on developing and protecting the large wetlands, although external initiatives are emerging. Ethiopia has many small, medium and large reservoir dams constructed for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply. Small dams are less than 15m high and have a capacity of less than 3 million m3. The height of the medium and large dams in Ethiopia is 15-50m and their capacity ranges from 4 to 1,900 million m3. In total, there are nine medium and large dams with a total capacity of almost 3.5km3. Two large dams are used for hydropower generation only, one dam is used both for hydropower generation and irrigation supply, two dams are used for irrigation supply only and the remaining four for water supply to the city of Addis Ababa and the town of Gondar. Small dams (micro-dams) constructed for irrigation supply are concentrated in the Amhara and Tigray regional states.

1.1.2.WATER USE Written information on water use is not available, but agriculture is obviously the main waterconsuming sector. Based on the total irrigated area, cropping pattern and calendar, annual agricultural water use is estimated to be in the order of 5.2km3, while municipal and industrial water withdrawals are estimated to be about 0.33 and 0.02km3 respectively. There is growing concern about water use because of the conflict between the environment and agriculture particularly in lowland rural areas, where total baseflows are diverted for irrigation without releasing water for ecological conservation. Groundwater has not yet been considered for irrigation development, mainly due to high investment and running costs, but pilot schemes to use groundwater for irrigation have been started.

1.2.WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH Major environmental problems are deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management. No irrigated land has reportedly been abandoned due to salinity so far, but salinity problems are being observed in irrigated lands along the Awash River. In addition, water pollution in the Awash River is becoming a concern. Generally, however, the water quality is within the suitable range of irrigation water quality standards. The problem of water quality due to drainage water from irrigated fields is not serious because the large rivers dilute it. In small-scale irrigation schemes, particularly in lowland areas, hardly any drainage water goes into the rivers. However, industrial effluents are being emptied directly into the river system and its tributaries in an uncontrolled manner. A major problem in the country is soil erosion and land degradation, resulting in the sedimentation of reservoirs and the high cost of allowing for silt accumulation in the reservoirs. Studies indicate that annual soil erosion in Ethiopia varies from 17 to 300 tonnes/ha. Country Overview - Ethiopia Although the extent is not known, water-related diseases and malaria are prevalent in irrigated areas not only in medium- and large-scale but also in small-scale irrigation schemes because canal water is being used for municipal purposes.

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Organizations in Ethiopia


Diageo plc is a British multinational alcoholic beverages company, with its headquarters in London, England. Diageo is the world's largest producer of spirits and a key producer of beer. Diageo's commitment to water stewardship is outlined in its Blueprint Water ... Learn More

As WASH Alliance International we envision a world where all people have access to sustainable and affordable water and sanitation services. This is a world where all people can live under hygienic living conditions to improve their health, dignity and ... Learn More

HYDROC is an association of independent consultants, -scientists and -engineers, providing water-related services through a network of national and international experts. Our concept uses the synergies of our combined expertise for the successful implementation of a variety of projects. Our ... Learn More

We develop agroforestry projects within the supply chains of companies (Insetting) and value water benefits, among others. We develop as well a Trees4Water valuation tool that we would like to share with your platform. Learn More

WASH is critical to leading healthy lives. Yet billions of people every day still do not have access to safe and clean water for drinking or washing, toilets and basic hygiene requirements to ensure that they stay healthy and well. ... Learn More

The Water Resilience Coalition, founded in 2020, is an industry-driven, CEO-led coalition of the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate that aims to elevate global water stress to the top of the corporate agenda and preserve the world's freshwater resources ... Learn More

Projects in Ethiopia

The project aims to build the alliance of Ethiopia WASH Partners that is working as a program approach. The project composed of carrying out different alliance building activities known as joint activities. These activities are aimed at building the bondage ... Learn More

The Partnership aims to improve the capacity of stakeholders in Oromia Regional State for sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure development and water resources protection. Specifically, project management capacity of Oromia Water Mineral and Energy Bureau (OWMEB) and management capacity for ... Learn More

After the acquisition of the Harar Brewery by HEINEKEN in 2011, the decision was made to replace the existing wastewater treatment plant with an entirely new one. The performance of the existing plant did not meet our quality standards, nor ... Learn More

Zanzibar is a small Island with huge climate change impacts that not much has been done so far to addap with. To solve the problems three piloted areas based on tourism, agriculture, fisheries, livestock and social issues criterias were used ... Learn More

The overall, long term objective of this study (and its planned continuation) is to improve the livelihoods of Haramaya small-scale farmers, without degrading the scarce water resources, by increasing crop water productivity ratio with an appropriate, feasible and affordable irrigation ... Learn More

The WaterAid team in Ethiopia has distributed 50 water tanks with 5,000 liter capacity, 2,500 liters of alcohol and more than 1,000 bars of laundry soaps to health centers and temporary COVID-19 treatment sites in Addis Ababa, the country's capital ... Learn More

The project discribes the linkage between waste managemt with Urban agriculture in different forms focussing in Dire Dawa city in order to make the city a centre for learning for East Hararghe project woredas and it involves action research, Learning ... Learn More

Fite Bako Village is situated on a hill. There is an unprotected spring at 800 m and 50 m downhill. Another 15 yr old spring (another direction), about the same distance, is not protected anymore, water is dirty now, maintenance ... Learn More

Inadequate safe water supply and poor sanitation and hygiene is still the pressing problems of Guramba Bata community,Dembia Woreda. Most of the community members obtain water from unsafe sources. This affects the health of the community, especially women and girls. ... Learn More

This research for development explores how to optimize the use of floods for agriculture and ecosystem services to support livelihoods in different landscapes and socio-economic settings in Sudan and Ethiopia. Learn More

The project will focus on documentation of results and impact of 3R /RWH and provide skills training to local government water and agriculture officers, as they are the front line manpower in the upscaling of RWH both on ground and ... Learn More

The lack of clean drinking water, toilets & systems for disposal of waste in slums make it difficult for the poor people living there to stay healthy. There is little collaboration between the communities, local government & enterprises to improve ... Learn More

Protecting Lake Hawassa is a broad and inclusive multi-stakeholder collaboration platform established in 2017, currently facilitated by the NatuReS programme, to improve water security for people, business and the environment in Hawassa, its lake and sub-catchment area. The partnership brings ... Learn More

The project focuses on water for multiple uses particularly small-scale irrigation and sanitation and hygiene facilities to Alduba School & the neighbouring community. Engaging the young and adults (parents-teacher association) in a community would create ownership of the issues needing ... Learn More

In six small villages 17 Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) systems will be put in place, as well as 17 latrines, and the capacity of the local implementing partner will be strengthened. Learn More

The Public Private Partnership(PPP) aims to ensure long-term water availability for urban, rural and industrial consumers in Harar State through the development of integrated water resources allocation and conservation, and the build-up of financial and organization capacity of Harar Water ... Learn More

The overall objective of this project is to increase sanitation coverage by providing sanitation systems suitable for low-income. The project is education, knowledge sharing, investment and setting up small businesses related to the sanitation chain. Learn More

Running Dry encourages a people-centered and consensus-building approach in promoting holistic solutions for addressing water resource management challenges, namely using the IWRM approach.1 The vision of success is that impoverished populations in dry and semiarid target areas will be able ... Learn More

On request of local rural communities, the public health department of St Luke Hospital visits the site. During the visit the degree of organisation, feasibility of the project and the number of households (about 500 people) is surveyed. The local ... Learn More

Starbucks and Conservation International began an assessment of the water component of the Coffee and Farmer Equity (C.A.F.E.) Practices program in 2008, focused on 2 stages in the coffee value chain: cultivating, growing and harvesting coffee using methods that avoid ... Learn More

The project will work to improve the organisational capacity of local organisations and local government agriculture and water bureaus to ensure efficient expansion of and continued delivery of quality Rainwater harvesting and WASH projects. Then project will strengthen partners through ... Learn More

Forster sanitation and hygiene behavioural and attitude change through student involvement and awareness raising. Specific objectives; To facilitate access to basic WASH facilities for 2 primary schools To engage 1,623 students and 47 teachers in 2 primary schools in student ... Learn More

Support WASH Practices of Pastoral Communities in Miyo. Learn More

The focus areas for the plan are: -Implementation of improved drinking water supply schemes that enable communities to access and use of safe drinking water Learn More

The major project plans for 2012 fiscal year include: - Construction of 4 institution Latrines - Drilling of two boreholes - Development/improvements of 3 hand dug wells - Water supply extension works of for one community - Learn More

The project is designed to supply potable water to villagers to prevent and control the spread of trachoma by implementing the WHO SAFE strategy, particularly Face washing and Environmental sanitation. It would develop 3 springs and 3 hand dug wells. ... Learn More

The programme aims to achieve access to safe and affordable drinking water for 130,000 people and contribute to efficient equitable sanitation and hygiene for 370,000 people. Special focus will be given to female-headed households, disadvantaged and marginalised rural and urban ... Learn More

Contributing to improved access to and use of safe water and improved hygiene practices of pastoralist and agro pastoralist communities of Dugda Dawa Woreda. A combination of facility support through construction of water systems and sanitation facilities is only ideal ... Learn More

Local young water expert Mukrab kassahun, I have been working in MS Consultancy with joint venture of Acacia Water B.V as Hydrogelogist for PPP in Harer and Water supply project of Heineken Brewery project in Ethiopia. I am responsible for ... Learn More

The main objective of this project is twofold. First, to increase awareness of the local population on sanitation, hygiene, clean and safe drinking water. The second objective is to set up a sustainable supply chain for affordable and reliable water ... Learn More

Water for Life aims to increase access to sanitation facilities to the peri-urban poor community. This concerns access for children of the primary schools and visitors of the central market of Ambo town in Ethiopia. Learn More

To construct 39 private connections and 303 shared yard connections for the urban poor in Harar. In combination with training, access to drinking water will be improved for 4,121 people. Learn More

The objective of this proposal is to rehabilitate 64 non-functioning Hand-Dug Well (HDW) water schemes in rural Harar and the construction of 10 water points in the peri-urban area of harar, targeting a total number of 22,000 rural dwellers . ... Learn More

The focus of this project is on the risks of climate change in rural regions in Ethiopia. This project will work on making the communities more selfsufficient. A main focus is water, sanitation and hygiene. Building toilet facilities, drinkwater facilities, ... Learn More

The focus of this project is on the risks of climate change in rural regions in Ethiopia. This project will work on making the communities more selfsufficient. A main focus is water, sanitation and hygiene. Building toilet facilities, drinkwater facilities, ... Learn More

Suggested Resources

View the full list of 300+ resources at the Water Stewardship Toolbox

This Working Paper proposes a method whereby any decision-maker can calculate the cost required to deliver sustainable water management to a geography. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

Inform and strengthen your company’s water management strategies and allow your investors to evaluate current water management activities against detailed definitions of leading practice. Learn More

Developers: Ceres

In this Nature feature, Johan Rockstrom and co-authors argue that identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries that must not be transgressed could help prevent human activities from causing unacceptable environmental change. Learn More

Nature-based solution (NBS) can improve degraded ecosystems, help sequester carbon, and manage the effects of climate change, including extreme weather events. Businesses are beginning to recognize the value of NBS for climate change mitigation, adaptation, and resilience. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

Developed by a group of leading beverage businesses, this is an easy-to-use excel tool for beverage facilities to estimate direct costs associated with their most water- and resource- intensive processes, beyond just the cost of water from the tap. The ... Learn More

Plan, Prepare and Respond- Breakdown for different industries on how to operate safely. Cleaning and disinfecting, Worker Safety, Support Resources, Mitigation Strategy Learn More

This report presents analysis of the response data from a sample of 783 of the world’s largest publicly listed companies. The report is aimed at companies and investors seeking to understand how they can play their part in delivering a ... Learn More

The Toolbox connects your business to the latest tools, guidance, case studies, datasets, and more most relevant to you based on your circumstances and interests. It features more than 250+ resources from dozens of organizations and is updated every week. Learn More

Developers: CEO Water Mandate, Pacific Institute

Checklist for restoring water quality in buildings left unused for a long duration. Learn More

Developers: EPA Office of Wastewater Management

CDC/EPA Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfecting Includes Printable Materials Learn More

This report makes the case for private sector investment in green infrastructure as part of a broader water stewardship approach. Learn More

Developers: BHP

The purpose of these guidelines is to highlight additional measures so that the integrity of the food chain is maintained, and that adequate and safe food supplies are available for consumers. Learn More

Includes Immediate steps, ongoing health measures that can be taken, and responsible business practice Learn More

Based on the major combat guidelines set by the São Paulo State Government, Sabesp is fully engaged to endure COVID-19 pandemic within its operation area, which means 374 municipalities located throughout São Paulo state and home to about 28 million ... Learn More

Developers: Sabesp

Best practices- Resources- Webinars on WASH/COVID-19 topics. Learn More

Urban stormwater is becoming an increasingly important alternative water supply in California. However, current economic analyses do not adequately evaluate co-benefits provided by different stormwater investments. As a result, urban stormwater capture is undervalued. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

NBS offer a promising contribution on how to enhance the availability and quality of water for productive purposes and human consumption, while preserving ecosystems. In this discussion paper, 21 case studies of water management processes are analysed, using a non-representative ... Learn More

FAO has been emphasizing the need to accelerate a global transition to sustainable food and agriculture systems, advocating an integrated approach. This document focuses on the management of water for agricultural use. Learn More

The Global Water Footprint Assessment Standard can be used to provide comparable quantification and robust analytics, helping corporations, governments, and researchers manage water resources and achieve greater water sustainability. Learn More

This guide outlines why and how investors engage on agricultural supply chain water risk. Learn More

Developers: WWF

The Committee designed this document to guide the food industry and advise its sponsoring agencies in the implementation of HACCP systems. Learn More

In this link, you will find an overview of our measures and initiatives to support the health and livelihood of employees and communities in which we operate. Our three guiding principles: Health, safety, and trust of our people Safeguard the ... Learn More

Developers: Heineken

Adapting to climate change, coupled with the need to address aging infrastructure, population growth, and degraded ecosystems, requires significant investment in natural and built water systems. These investments present a significant opportunity to support not only water, but to provide ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

To provide guidance and a global framework for the design, verification and scaling up of Nature-based Solutions. The Standard includes globally consistent Criteria and Indicators, which are supported by the Principles for Nature-based Solutions, to measure the strength of interventions. Learn More

Developers: International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

To help our partners in responding to this health crisis in their countries, we have compiled different resources and tools around COVID-19 and WASH, which include documents, videos, social media materials with messages on public health, webinar recordings, etc. Learn More

With special attention to resources for utilities, this page lists relevant guidance around water and COVID-19. Learn More

Developers: American Water Works Association

This page seeks to help water sector professionals keep informed on the attributions of the COVID-19 virus and any measures needed to protect both workers and public health, in general. Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

This article presents the state of knowledge with regard to human health and well-being from contact with nature. Learn More

The United Nations World Water Development Report for 2018. Learn More

With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their core operations. This guide is meant as a stepping point to begin reopening with safety as a ... Learn More

During an infectious disease outbreak, such as the current outbreak of COVID-19, small business owners must prepare for disruption in their business as well as prepare to protect their employees’ health and safety in the workplace. These steps are recommended ... Learn More

This report shows how putting nature to work can help deliver infrastructure services with greater impact and lower cost, all the while reducing risks from disaster, boosting water security and enhancing climate resilience. Learn More

The Coca-Cola Company is quantifying the water-related “Replenish” benefits derived through its Community Water Partnership (CWP) projects. The work described in this report builds on previous efforts, and provides a current status of quantification results for three categories of CWP ... Learn More

Developers: GETF, The Coca-Cola Company

Questions\ guidelines relating to food businesses answered by the WHO. Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

This report seeks to provide an overview of the three leading water tools available for corporate water risk assessment. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

SAVEh is the platform through which Ambev shares its water management system free of charge with other companies, which has helped to reduce more than 40% of the company’s water consumption in the last 13 years. This water efficiency tool ... Learn More

Developers: Ambev S/A

The Colorado River Basin states face significant water challenges, including the overallocation of water, long-term drought, and climate change. This report, commissioned by the Walton Family Foundation, explores the potential for corporate water stewardship to help solve these challenges. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The City of Austin, Texas is facing an increasingly uncertain water future, from decreasing water supplies and more intense droughts to periodic flooding and water quality impairments. Austin is addressing these challenges head on, from investments in water efficiency and ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Compass Business Tools inventory maps existing business tools against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It allows you to explore commonly used business tools that may be useful when assessing your organization’s impact on the SDGs. Learn More

The world’s water resources are under increasing pressure from rising water consumption, pollution, and climate variability. The variety of water challenges companies face, from water governance issues to extreme events like drought, manifest in the river basins where the companies ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

This report provides findings on good practices of AWS Standard implementation. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The Soil &amp; Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a small watershed to river basin-scale model used to simulate the quality and quantity of surface and ground water and predict the environmental impact of land use, land management practices and climate ... Learn More

In response to the challenge of quantifying the business benefits, WaterAid, Diageo, GAP Inc., and Unilever have worked with PwC and ODI to develop a practical, step-by-step guide. The guide will help companies understand the business value of their WASH ... Learn More

Developers: WaterAid

The Sustainable Rice Platform (SRP) Standard for Sustainable Rice Cultivation is the world’s first voluntary sustainability standard for rice. The standard is complemented by a set of 12 quantitative performance indicators. By identifying “hotspots,” the indicators enable users to monitor ... Learn More

The Forest Stewardship Council created the Principles of Forest Stewardship as a worldwide standard to promote environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world’s forests. Learn More

The AWS Standard is a globally-applicable framework for major water users to understand their water use and impacts, and to work collaboratively and transparently for sustainable water management within a catchment context. Learn More

Developers: Alliance for Water Stewardship

This paper provides examples of how to make progress in service delivery in and beyond the workplace. With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their ... Learn More

This special Academy session covered steps businesses can take to respect and support the rights and lives of women and girls during the COVID-19 pandemic. Learn More

This tool is an interactive map linking nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation outcomes based on a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

A deep dive into three areas for business action:1 Responsible Marketing 2 Accelerating Collaborative Action at the Country Level 3 Building Resilience and Good Practice Solutions for Business Learn More

This report explores the possibilities of scaling a circular economy, given the reality of the global economy and the complexity of multi-tier supply chains. Learn More

Developers: World Economic Forum

Water is the lifeblood of California, providing for the household needs of 40 million people and supporting one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world, various commercial and industrial activities, and the health and viability of the state’s ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

ILO Sectoral Policies and Governance and Tripartism Departments present four self-training modules, which adapt existing ILO training tools on OSH to provide governments, workers and employers with the necessary skills to implement the general principles contained in relevant ILO instruments. ... Learn More

Companies are increasingly setting and pursing ‘water balance targets’ as part of their water stewardship strategies. The seeming simplicity of balance goals can be attractive – “we will restore a volume of water equal to the amount our business consumes.” ... Learn More

Developers: WWF

This report calls for an integrated approach that brings together governments, water users, and the society at large including the private sector, NGOs, and academia to design smart, adaptable and sustainable solutions for water infrastructure impacted by climate change. Learn More

The Water Risk Filter can be used to assess and respond to water related risks for your own operations, suppliers, or growth plans. Learn More

Developers: WWF

The Water Risk Filter can be used to assess and respond to water-related risks for your own operations, suppliers, or growth plans. Learn More

Developers: WWF

Safely managed water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services are an essential part of preventing and protecting human health during infectious disease outbreaks, including the current COVID-19 pandemic. Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

Outdoor Industry Association (OIA) Learn More

CTCN; UNEP Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Water Witness International; WaterAid; WBCSD Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

UNEP Learn More

IPIECA Learn More

Ceres Learn More

Ecolab Learn More

PRI; WWF Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Pegasys; Water Witness International; WWF Learn More

The World Bank Learn More

UNEP-DHI Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

UN Water Learn More

OECD Learn More

UNICEF; WHO Learn More

River Threat Netwrok Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; WWF Learn More

Swedish Textile Water Initiative Learn More

Alliance for Water Stewardship Learn More

WaterAid Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

McKinsey Learn More

Toilet Board Coalition Learn More

Conservation International Learn More

UNEP Learn More

U.S. General Services Administration Learn More

National Drought Mitigation Center Learn More

USGS Learn More

UN Water Learn More

AT&T; EDF; Global Environmental Management Institute (GEMI) Learn More

OECD Learn More

SAI Platform Learn More

Lillian Holmes
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