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Canada

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Amazon
Area: 5888268 km2
Countries:
Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Cities:
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
PFAF ID:
HydroBasin Level:
Baseline Water Stress:
Water Quality Stress:
Sanitation Access Stress:
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Quick Info

1.9 out of 5
WWF Country Risk Score
177 out of 248 Countries
WWF Country Rank
Total Organizations: 22
Total Projects: 18
Priority SDGs: Increase Access to Water, Sanitation, Hygiene (SDG 6.1 & 6.2)
Water Quality (SDG 6.3)
Water Use Efficiency (SDG 6.4)
Integrated Water Resource Management (SDG 6.5)
Protect and Restore Ecosystems (SDG 6.6)
International Cooperation and Capacity Building (SDG 6.a)
Stakeholder Participation (SDG 6.b)
Sustainable Production (SDG 12.4)
Climate Resilience and Adaptation (SDG 13.1)
Priority Regions: --
Priority Industries: Fossil fuels
Hospitality
Power generation
Organization Types:
64%
Business
14%
NGO / Civil Society
9%
Utility / Water Service Provider
5%
Academia
5%
Government
5%
International Organization
Profile Completion: 91%

Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $12,464,802,728.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $458,276,820.00 - [4%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $627,218,458.00 - [5%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $1,972,013,775.00 - [16%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $1,666,927,104.00 - [13%]
  • Water Scarcity: $5,662,899,450.00 - [45%]
  • Water Management: $2,077,467,121.00 - [17%]

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

14.3%
Access to Water Supply and Water Services
14.3%
Compliance with Local Regulations and Widely-Accepted Standards
14.3%
Land Use Issues
14.3%
Local Water Resource Governance
14.3%
Physical water supply
14.3%
Water Demand and Competition among Users
14.3%
Water Pricing

Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES Canada has 7 per cent of the world’s renewable water and is often recognized as one of the world’s water wealthy nations.But this fact can be misleading: about 60 per cent of Canada’s fresh water drains north, while 85 per cent of the population lives within 300km of the southern border. In other words, much of Canada’s water is not where it is needed most, in the heavily populated areas. Even in areas where water is plentiful, it is becoming polluted, such as in the Great Lakes or Lake Winnipeg. In addition, there is periodic drought in certain regions, such as the Prairies. In fact, Canada is not as rich in water as it seems: water is becoming an increasingly challenging issue at regional and national scales the issue in this century that energy was in the last.

1.1.2.WATER USE In 1996, agriculture used about 9 per cent of all water withdrawn in Canada and consumed over 74 per cent of that amount, making it the single largest sectoral consumer of water. Since 1981, water withdrawn for agricultural purposes has been steadily increasing, with most being used for irrigation and 5 per cent being used for livestock purposes. The three most western provinces (British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan) are the most intensive agricultural water-users, withdrawing over 90 per cent of the total water volume used on farms in Canada in 1996. It is important, in a country as large and diverse as Canada, to focus on regional scale issues. For example, Flows in the South Saskatchewan River system in western Canada have declined to crisis levels, prompting the Government of Alberta to cap water takings from the South Saskatchewan and a number of its main tributaries. Almost three-quarters of Canada’s irrigated agriculture occurs here, making the South Saskatchewan River Basin one of Canada’s most important regions for production of commodities such as pulse crops, canola, wheat and barley and beefi. It is estimated that two major Canadian droughts that deeply impacted this region in 2001-2002 contributed collectively to a GDP loss of approximately $5.8 billion. Over 40 thousand jobs in the agricultural sector were impacted in the processii.

1.2.WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH Canada’s major environmental problems include: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining and forestry activities. There has been a substantial reduction in point source discharges of toxic substances into Canadian waters over the last 15 years. For example, by 2003, under the St. Lawrence Action Plan, toxicity of effluent discharged into the river by 50 of the most polluting industrial plants had been reduced by 96 per cent; 80 plants attained their toxic effluent reduction objective, and 11 persistent bio-accumulative toxic substances were virtually eliminated. The greatest success may be the reduction of dioxins and furans from pulp and paper mills practising chlorine bleaching. This was accomplished through federal government regulation under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and through industry innovation to create a system of pollution prevention and water monitoring. Pollution prevention focuses on the use of processes, practices, materials or products that avoid or minimize the creation of pollutants and waste and reduce the overall risk to human health or the environment. However, other key sources of pollution remain. In 1999, 97 per cent of the municipal population received some form of sewage treatment, and 78 per cent received secondary or tertiary treatment. And while Canada has increased the number of communities with primary treatment (from about 1 in 30 in 1989 to 1 in 8 in 1999), about one trillion litres of primary or untreated sewage pours into the water every year. In 1999, about 82,750 tonnes of total nitrogen and 4,950 tonnes of phosphorus was released to lakes, rivers and coastal waters from municipal sewage. Waste management from agriculture, mining, industry and municipalities also presents possible threats to water quality. Leachate from landfills can commence years after a landfill has been decommissioned and can contain a wide variety of chemical compounds. Waste from other sources, including municipal sludge, mine tailings and agricultural waste, may also pose threats to water quality and ecosystem health. The production of agricultural animal waste is becoming more concentrated as animal husbandry evolves into larger operations, requiring appropriate management protocols to minimize risk. There is also a growing concern about the possible presence of pathogens and pharmaceuticals in animal waste. While the number of mines has remained relatively constant in Canada over recent years, operation size is increasing, resulting in a greater volume of wastewater. Bio-solids, the sludge left over following municipal wastewater treatment, is often spread on agricultural land as fertilizer. Unfortunately, assessment of risks associated with these possible sources of water pollution is difficult due to a lack of data. I THINK YOU NEED SOMETHING ON OIL SANDS HERE – it is the biggest mining project in Canada (i think) and is on a massive growth trajectory. With regard to non-point sources of pollution, a tremendous challenge remains in the need to understand and address the cumulative impacts of multiple point and non-point source impacts on ambient water quality and quantity, including agricultural and municipal runoff. In the Canadian Great Lakes region, urban runoff discharges are annually of the order of 105 tonnes of suspended solids, 104 tonnes of chloride, 103 tonnes of oil and grease and 102-103 tonnes of trace metals.

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Organizations in Canada


ALUS, originally an acronym for Alternative Land Use Services, is an innovative community-developed and farmer-delivered program that produces, enhances and maintains ecosystem services on agricultural lands. Projects such as wetland restoration and enhancement, riparian buffers, shelterbelts, afforestation and native prairie … Learn More

APATEQ's core values and mission are to address water scarcity and pollution issues, with best fit solutions to meet the needs to reduce, reuse and recycle water. Our solutions work in support of the Sustainability and CSR agendas defined by … Learn More

AcquaSolve provides software solutions that enable organizations to tackle their water challenges. It automates the tracking of product and process water footprints, enables the creation of a water management strategy, and enables performance monitoring. Learn More

Agnico Eagle is a senior Canadian gold mining company that has produced precious metals since 1957. Its eight mines are located in Canada, Finland and Mexico, with exploration and development activities in each of these countries as well as in … Learn More

"We are all connected; To each other, biologically. To the Earth, chemically. To the rest of the universe, atomically." Neil deGrasse Tyson Every human, regardless of race, identity, orientation, or culture - we are all interconnected by seventy percent water. … Learn More

Clearford is a new kind of water management company. Operating approximately 200 water and wastewater treatment plants throughout Ontario and 10 sites in India, we deliver unified water infrastructure solutions with sector-leading efficiency. Our comprehensive offering combines innovative water and … Learn More

Headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, Crescent Point Energy is a leading North American oil producer focused on the development of high-return resource plays. Learn More

Eldorado Gold is a Canadian mid-tier gold and base metals producer with 25 years of experience building and operating mines in Europe, Asia and the Americas. Learn More

We provide clean water and safe, reliable energy. Learn More

The FAAVM Canada is a nonprofit, charitable organization. Our major focus involves using various multifunctional civil rights programs to help our mostly disadvantaged, underprivileged Communities. Via the FAAVM multilateral humanitarian systems, and activities, we're able to reach out to these … Learn More

Goldcorp Inc. is a gold production company headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Learn More

Golder is a global, employee-owned organization providing independent consulting, design and construction services in our specialist areas of earth, environment and energy. Learn More

Ivanhoe Mines is a Canadian mining company focused on advancing its three principal, joint-venture projects in Southern Africa: the development of new mines at the Kamoa-Kakula copper discovery in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Platreef platinum-palladium-nickel-copper-gold discovery … Learn More

For as long as nearly 70 years since its founding in 1949, Kurita Water Industries has been consistently operating in two areas of "water and the environment." To cater to diverse customer needs, the Kurita Group provides comprehensive solutions by … Learn More

We develop agroforestry projects within the supply chains of companies (Insetting) and value water benefits, among others. We develop as well a Trees4Water valuation tool that we would like to share with your platform. WE REGENERATE ECOSYSTEMS TO IMPROVE LIVELIHOODS … Learn More

The POLIS Water Sustainability Project (WSP) recognizes that water scarcity is largely a social dilemma that cannot be solved by technical innovations alone. Instead, it must be addressed through new, integrated approaches to water management and decision-making. The WSP develops … Learn More

Our main focus at Puroxi Pure Water Global Inc. is to supply natural, eco-friendly products, in an ethical and socially responsible manner, to purify/treat water on a national and global level, for safe, healthy consumption. We are especially proud to … Learn More

With more than 60 years of experience, Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (TRCA) is one of 36 Conservation Authorities in Ontario, created to safeguard and enhance the health and well-being of watershed communities through the protection and restoration of the … Learn More

Water Canada is an influencer, a networker, and a newsmaker. Our editors and researchers know the industry and the people implementing plans and projects on the frontlines. Thousands of readers turn to us for exclusive, insightful content that speaks to … Learn More

The WaterTAP mandate to help foster a new generation of world-class water technology businesses strengthens Ontario’s position as the North American centre of water excellence, and maintains Ontario’s leadership in conserving and sustaining water resources for present and future generations. Learn More

WebFactor is a professional Web Design and Development company in Burlington, Ontario. Our skilled developers &amp; designers deliver Responsive WordPress Website, eCommerce Store solution, SEO, SMO and Mobile Application Development services at affordable range. Learn More

Our Mission Empower communities, governments, and organizations to create processes that result in a zero carbon footprint by leveraging global strategic partnerships in green technology. Our Team We are led by innovators and visionaries from multiple industries who share a … Learn More

Projects in Canada


The Clean and Conserve Education Program is designed to help children ages four and older learn about water conservation and healthy hygiene practices through school and community educators, or on their own. The program has five educational components, divided by … Learn More

Promote Awareness of Flood Risk Challenges and Protection Collaborate with public and private institutions with similar missions Increasingly develop and participate in webinars, seminars, publications, and demonstration/training workshops. Project Results Increased public awareness of the socio-economic, municipal, infrastructural, private, and … Learn More

ITPA was born in 1998, from the initiative of environmentalists committed to guaranteeing the protection of one of the last and most conserved fragments of Atlantic Forest, in Rio de Janeiro, the Tingu‡ Biological Reserve. We are currently the largest … Learn More

Improving Health by Providing Clean Water in Haiti Good health begins with access to clean water Did you know that half of the world's hospital beds are filled with people suffering from a water related disease? In developing countries, about … Learn More

CPG utilizes recycled water used for completions, increasing the use of saline water and other technology advancements to reduce water use. In addition, CPG stays informed on regional water issues and ensures contingency plans are in place to maintain operations … Learn More

Forests provide much of the world’s most biodiverse habitat on land, making their protection a priority for maintaining biodiversity. They also provide flood control and water regulation benefits. In 2011, we launched a new environmental initiative with funding to help … Learn More

Enabling access to long-term, affordable finance for solar rooftop installation projects in commercial, industrial and residential housing sectors in India, including vulnerable communities. India is the world's fourth largest carbon emitter, responsible for 6 per cent of global greenhouse gas … Learn More

This project demonstrated innovative design in treating acidic drainage to reclaim disturbed lands. When water quality in the pit lake threatened to degrade beyond regulatory compliance levels in 2004, BHP undertook an innovative in-lake water management system, called the Middle … Learn More

The New Acre Project allows companies to fund environmental projects on local farms and ranches across Canada, delivering a bundle of ecosystem services, such as cleaner air, cleaner water, and more biodiversity. As Canada’s population grows, much of its wetlands, … Learn More

Coca-Cola partnered with many organizations to distribute 55-gallon syrup drums to be reused as rain barrels for residential properties. The collected water is reused for outdoor water needs, conserving water and preventing polluted runoff. Learn More

Project WET is currently active in more than 75 countries around the world through a network of partner organizations that range from small NGOs to major international corporations and organizations. We only go where we’re invited! We work with our … Learn More

Planting of Trees to Restore Watershed Health, in Partnership with Farmers in the Province of Alberta The project focus for the first year was put on restoring the Blindman River, an affluent of Red Deer River. Agricultural activities have led … Learn More

Summary Seawater/Lake Water Air Conditioning (SWAC/LWAC) technology produces air conditioning without the use of chemical agents. Acting alone, SWAC/LWAC can reduce electricity usage by up to 90% when compared to traditional air conditioning systems. When developed in conjunction with Ocean … Learn More

AB InBev partners with growers around the world to produce high-quality malt barley, the primary ingredient in our world class beers. AB InBev developed a platform for growers to benchmark their barley practices and performance across a global grower network, … Learn More

Our key objective is to construct a potable water treatment utility &amp; bulk water dispensing station, with a set goal of commissioning by January 2019. Our missions at Stoddart Creek Water Services Inc is to serve the public with a … Learn More

TCCC helped fund a sediment capping project of a confined disposal facility on the Leslie Street Spit. Leslie Street Spit had been historically used for industrial and shipping activities and disposal of trash from the construction industry and sediments dredged … Learn More

As Brisbane is the area of the highest water risk in Kirin group, the Castlemain Parkins Plant in Brisbane introduced the cutting-edge facility to reduce water use in 2008. Its initial cost was about 250 million yen. The facility enables … Learn More

The Water Ethics Network facilitates sharing of experience, ideas and information about events and activities relating to water ethics. The aim is to bring water ethics into everyday discourse of water policies and management decisions so that choices about water … Learn More

Suggested Resources

View the full list of 300+ resources at the Water Stewardship Toolbox

With special attention to resources for utilities, this page lists relevant guidance around water and COVID-19. Learn More

Developers: American Water Works Association

This page seeks to help water sector professionals keep informed on the attributions of the COVID-19 virus and any measures needed to protect both workers and public health, in general. Learn More

In this Nature feature, Johan Rockstrom and co-authors argue that identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries that must not be transgressed could help prevent human activities from causing unacceptable environmental change. Learn More

Inform and strengthen your company’s water management strategies and allow your investors to evaluate current water management activities against detailed definitions of leading practice. Learn More

Developers: Ceres

This report presents analysis of the response data from a sample of 783 of the world’s largest publicly listed companies. The report is aimed at companies and investors seeking to understand how they can play their part in delivering a … Learn More

The Toolbox connects your business to the latest tools, guidance, case studies, datasets, and more most relevant to you based on your circumstances and interests. It features more than 250+ resources from dozens of organizations and is updated every week. Learn More

Developers: CEO Water Mandate, Pacific Institute

Includes Immediate steps, ongoing health measures that can be taken, and responsible business practice Learn More

Based on the major combat guidelines set by the São Paulo State Government, Sabesp is fully engaged to endure COVID-19 pandemic within its operation area, which means 374 municipalities located throughout São Paulo state and home to about 28 million … Learn More

Developers: Sabesp

Checklist for restoring water quality in buildings left unused for a long duration. Learn More

Developers: EPA Office of Wastewater Management

Best practices- Resources- Webinars on WASH/COVID-19 topics. Learn More

The Global Water Footprint Assessment Standard can be used to provide comparable quantification and robust analytics, helping corporations, governments, and researchers manage water resources and achieve greater water sustainability. Learn More

The Committee designed this document to guide the food industry and advise its sponsoring agencies in the implementation of HACCP systems. Learn More

Adapting to climate change, coupled with the need to address aging infrastructure, population growth, and degraded ecosystems, requires significant investment in natural and built water systems. These investments present a significant opportunity to support not only water, but to provide … Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

To help our partners in responding to this health crisis in their countries, we have compiled different resources and tools around COVID-19 and WASH, which include documents, videos, social media materials with messages on public health, webinar recordings, etc. Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their core operations. This guide is meant as a stepping point to begin reopening with safety as a … Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

SAVEh is the platform through which Ambev shares its water management system free of charge with other companies, which has helped to reduce more than 40% of the company’s water consumption in the last 13 years. This water efficiency tool … Learn More

Developers: Ambev S/A

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Compass Business Tools inventory maps existing business tools against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It allows you to explore commonly used business tools that may be useful when assessing your organization’s impact on the SDGs. Learn More

In response to the challenge of quantifying the business benefits, WaterAid, Diageo, GAP Inc., and Unilever have worked with PwC and ODI to develop a practical, step-by-step guide. The guide will help companies understand the business value of their WASH … Learn More

Developers: WaterAid

The Forest Stewardship Council created the Principles of Forest Stewardship as a worldwide standard to promote environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world’s forests. Learn More

The AWS Standard is a globally-applicable framework for major water users to understand their water use and impacts, and to work collaboratively and transparently for sustainable water management within a catchment context. Learn More

Developers: Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS)

This report explores the possibilities of scaling a circular economy, given the reality of the global economy and the complexity of multi-tier supply chains. Learn More

Developers: World Economic Forum

ILO Sectoral Policies and Governance and Tripartism Departments present four self-training modules, which adapt existing ILO training tools on OSH to provide governments, workers and employers with the necessary skills to implement the general principles contained in relevant ILO instruments. … Learn More

Companies are increasingly setting and pursing ‘water balance targets’ as part of their water stewardship strategies. The seeming simplicity of balance goals can be attractive – “we will restore a volume of water equal to the amount our business consumes.” … Learn More

Developers: WWF

The Water Risk Filter can be used to assess and respond to water related risks for your own operations, suppliers, or growth plans. Learn More

Developers: WWF

Safely managed water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services are an essential part of preventing and protecting human health during infectious disease outbreaks, including the current COVID-19 pandemic. Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

Outdoor Industry Association (OIA) Learn More

CTCN; UNEP Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Water Witness International; WaterAid; WBCSD Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

IPIECA Learn More

Ecolab Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Pegasys; Water Witness International; WWF Learn More

The World Bank Learn More

UNEP-DHI Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

UN Water Learn More

OECD Learn More

UNICEF; WHO Learn More

River Threat Netwrok Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; WWF Learn More

Swedish Textile Water Initiative Learn More

Alliance for Water Stewardship Learn More

WaterAid Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

McKinsey Learn More

Toilet Board Coalition Learn More

Conservation International Learn More

UNEP Learn More

UN Water Learn More

AT&T; EDF; Global Environmental Management Institute (GEMI) Learn More

Lillian Holmes
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