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Area: 5888268 km2
Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
HydroBasin Level:
Baseline Water Stress:
Water Quality Stress:
Sanitation Access Stress:
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City & Country

Quick Info

3.21 out of 5
WWF Country Risk Score
29 out of 248 Countries
WWF Country Rank
Total Organizations: 5
Total Projects: 5
Priority SDGs: Sustainable Agriculture (SDG 2.4)
Increase Access to Water, Sanitation, Hygiene (SDG 6.1 & 6.2)
Water Quality (SDG 6.3)
Water Use Efficiency (SDG 6.4)
Protect and Restore Ecosystems (SDG 6.6)
Stakeholder Participation (SDG 6.b)
Water-Related Disaster Management (SDG 11.5)
Climate Resilience and Adaptation (SDG 13.1)
Priority Regions: Shebelle
Priority Industries: Apparel
Biotech, health care & pharma
Food, beverage & agriculture
Organization Types:
NGO / Civil Society
International Organization
Profile Completion: 100%

Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $418,955,257.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $124,569,114.00 - [30%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $124,844,874.00 - [30%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $18,193,986.00 - [4%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $70,953,917.00 - [17%]
  • Water Scarcity: $10,567,491.00 - [3%]
  • Water Management: $69,825,876.00 - [17%]

For more about this data, see information on WRI’s Achieving Abundance dataset here.

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

Access to Water Supply and Water Services
Physical water supply
Water Pricing
Local Water Resource Governance
Compliance with Local Regulations and Widely-Accepted Standards
Upstream Water Issues
Water Demand and Competition among Users
Land Use Issues

Country Overview

1.1.2.WATER USE Total water withdrawal is estimated at 3.298km3/year (2003), of which agriculture (irrigation and livestock) accounts for 99.5 per cent. In the rural areas municipal water supply is derived from surface dams, boreholes, shallow wells and springs, often distributed by donkey carts to households. During the dry season groundwater is the main supply for municipal and livestock use and is only supplemented by surface water when and where it is available. Agricultural water abstractions are mainly limited to partially controlled irrigation schemes in the river basins. Of the abstractions for agriculture, livestock accounts for around 0.03km3/year. Under the present conditions, surface water withdrawal amounts to around 96 per cent, and groundwater withdrawal to 4 per cent of the total water withdrawal. In the dry season, as the water resources become scarce, competition between the resources is high and groundwater supplies are often severely stressed. United Nations Development Project (UNDP) (2003) estimated that about 69 per cent of the 9 million Somalis lived in rural areas. The pastoral nature of the rural dwellers requires them to constantly search for water and grassland. With an average growth rate of 3 per cent, there is increasing pressure on available resources both for domestic and pastoral uses.

1.2.WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH Environmental water-related problems concern shortage of water, use of contaminated water, overgrazing, salinization, waterlogging, recurrent drought and severe floods. The coastal waters are degraded by the illegal cleaning of tanks and fishing, mostly by foreign fleets. The uncontrolled cutting of acacia and juniper forests for the export of charcoal and firewood is damaging the rangelands. From 1997 to 2003, it is estimated that charcoal production increased by 70 per cent. Soil erosion in the form of sheet, rill, river bank and gully erosion is extensive and has an impact on agricultural land. Soil erosion has also been accelerated due to land that has been left fallow. Substantial areas have been salinized and waterlogged by irrigation. Persistent crop pests are common and affect the quantity and quality of the harvest. Indicators of health have not shown any improvement for the population during the last few years. Farm labour is affected by malaria and tuberculosis, which are the two main human diseases. There is also a high incidence of malaria during the wet season when farm labour is needed. Tuberculosis is common among the pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities. Health facilities are concentrated in the urban centres, but water resources are very limited. In Hargeisa the population has on average 7L of water per day, and many people have much less than that. In Mogadishu the water supply is affected by saltwater intrusion from the sea because of extensive groundwater pumping. In some rural areas the construction and rehabilitation of water supplies has resulted in more people and livestock in the area, which has degraded the rangelands. While people in agro-pastoral communities may or may not understand the health hazards posed by consumption of dirty water, they do lack obvious mechanisms for improving the quality of water they consume. There is also a general perception that disease and death are predetermined and unavoidable. Most communities have little knowledge of water-related diseases and modes of transmission, hence awareness training is required. The most common waterrelated diseases are diarrhoea (especially in children under five years), typhoid, malaria and trachoma, common amongst people living in the vicinity of springs (SWALIM-UNICEF, 2007). Sanitation facilities have a high number of users since no piped sewerage systems exist. In addition, migration from rural areas has placed added pressure on the few facilities found in periurban areas where migrants are settling. To some extent, temporary facilities have become permanent investments. To maintain these facilities, local organizations and the humanitarian community de-sludge using vacuum tankers. However, de-sludging in this case does not avoid water table contamination because infiltration is not stopped as in a septic tank. On average, it is estimated that 51 per cent of the urban population has access to sanitation facilities. Few latrines are equipped with septic tanks and two-thirds of these are not managed. In areas where displaced people have settled, almost no sanitation facilities exist. This forces most to resort to open defecation on the periphery of peri-urban areas and refugee camps (United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 2009)

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Country Water Profile

Coming Soon

Organizations in Somalia

Our mission is to provide complete water development services and affordable products, creating access to clean water. This includes a wide assortment of essential, sustainable, life-enhancing products and services to benefit people living in crisis. Our clients are mostly NGO's … Learn More

Facilitating daily access to clean, and safe drinking water for Women and Children in the Horn of African Region. Learn More

HYDROC is an association of independent consultants, -scientists and -engineers, providing water-related services through a network of national and international experts. Our concept uses the synergies of our combined expertise for the successful implementation of a variety of projects. Our … Learn More

About Us Malaria Action Relief (MAR) is an independent humanitarian, non-profit, non-governmental organization which provides all kinds of assistance for fighting malaria. MAR was established in 2016. It is an organization looking to assist people in developing countries against a … Learn More

WaterStep responds to critical needs for safe water by evaluating and implementing solutions and teaching people to use those tools. WaterStep saves lives with safe water by empowering communities to take care of their own long-term water needs. We believe … Learn More

Projects in Somalia

Project WET is currently active in more than 75 countries around the world through a network of partner organizations that range from small NGOs to major international corporations and organizations. We only go where we’re invited! We work with our … Learn More

Emergency water distribution in dire needed Somali Community Large-scale disasters often disrupt water supplies, especially in the world's most vulnerable and conflict-ridden communities where resources are already strained or scarce. Strong storms and flooding can contaminate local water sources, increasing … Learn More

The Horn of Africa is facing it's worst draught since the last four decade. The looming catastrophy to human and livestock alike, is the increasing daily dehydration to death around communities like Danane in Ethiopia, Jilib in Somalia, and Kalokol … Learn More

In 2020, the SDG 6 IWRM Support Programme assisted the Somali Ministry of Energy and Water Resources in organizing two seminars aimed at raising awareness and capacity among key stakeholders on critical water-related issues as a basis for gaining political … Learn More

The main objective of the WASH Rapid Response Project (WRRP) to facilitate and enhance rapid responses on influential factors affecting equity in access to water, sanitation and hygiene in Beledweyne IDPs and host populations. This project is non-external funded and … Learn More

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Mohamed Abdullahi
Ahmed Bashir
Water Action Hub Team
Primary Contact  

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