UN Global Compact  |  CEO Water Mandate

Great Britain Colombia Brazil


<% join_label %>


Show Full Map
Area: 5888268 km2
Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
HydroBasin Level:
Baseline Water Stress:
Water Quality Stress:
Sanitation Access Stress:
Click to view individual basin.
Click Icon to Show on Map
City & Country

Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $1,710,398,373.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $165,597,547.00 - [10%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $256,180,914.00 - [15%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $392,514,238.00 - [23%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $147,513,592.00 - [9%]
  • Water Scarcity: $463,525,686.00 - [27%]
  • Water Management: $285,066,395.00 - [17%]

For more about this data, see information on WRI’s Achieving Abundance dataset here.

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

Local Water Resource Governance
Access to Water Supply and Water Services
Compliance with Local Regulations and Widely-Accepted Standards
Water Demand and Competition among Users

Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES The Danube is of huge significance to Romania: covering 237,391km² and with nearly 22 million inhabitants, the country is almost entirely within the Danube basin. Almost a third of the surface area of the basin is in Romania, and over a third of the river’s length flows through the country. Crucially, the Romanian (and Ukrainian) Danube is the end carrier of all wastewater discharges from all countries into the Black Sea. Over half of Romania’s water bodies show high ecological status. However, development significantly affected water quality in much of the rest in the 1960s to 1980s. Romania is poor in water resources, with 1,700m³/inhabitant/yr, ranking it 13th in Europe. Specific mean flow is under 1L/s/km² on the Romanian, Dobrogea, Timis and Arad plains and 40L/s/km² in the high zones of the Fagaras and Retezat mountains. The river network is 78,905km in total. 6.1 per cent of Romania (14,437.3km²) has been designated for the protection of habitats/species. Romania’s water resources comprise the Danube (44 per cent), inland rivers (46 per cent) and groundwater (10 per cent).

1.1.2.WATER USE Water demand in the industrial and agricultural sectors increased continuously until 1989. After this, demand decreased in parallel with the increase in the quantity of water used by households. Water quality improved slightly because of lower agricultural and industrial pollution and the measures imposed on economic agents by the local environmental protection agency. The percentage of top quality watercourses grew from 35 per cent in 1985 to approximately 66 per cent in 2002. Nevertheless, some 6.6 per cent of watercourses still remained below the quality needed for aquatic fauna to develop. There are no specific statistics about the efficiency of water use in industry. There are water recycling systems treating 10-95 per cent of water, depending on the industry and individual factories. In agriculture, most water is used for irrigation, where water efficiency ranges from 60 to 80 per cent. Average water consumption per capita per day in urban areas is about 513L. Around 294L of this is for domestic use; 70L for public use; 122L for economic activities use; and 134L is lost in the network. Water consumption is approximately 150L per capita per day in rural areas. Reducing water losses is important. On average, at the national level, losses will decrease from 34 per cent at present to 15 per cent by 2020. Introduction of real water prices will present an incentive to reduce losses and to increase recirculation and re-use. Low investment and slow application of reforms in the national economy have the potential to slow down this process. Irrigation water is subject to monitoring and evaluation before the irrigation period. However, no data from this monitoring is available at national level. According to the 1992 census, 85 per cent of the urban population and 16 per cent of the rural population live in households connected to water supply systems. More recent information shows a 93 per cent increase in access to the centralized drinking water system in cities and a 17 per cent increase in rural areas. In 2005, 7.8 billion m3 was abstracted in Romania for human use. River systems are used for: hydroelectric power (29 per cent of the country’s power supply); navigation; to receive effluent; and to provide the majority of Romania’s drinking water supply. Flooding is a problem, exacerbated by heavy localized rainfall, increased urban land use, ad hoc floodplain development, reduced riverbed capacity and non-rational deforestation of large areas. Hydro-morphological pressures affect a large proportion of watercourses. Significant pressures come from reservoirs (there are 255 in Romania); embankments (80 per cent of the Danube is embanked); regulation works (stretching 6,600km); water diversions; 138 significant water abstractions; and 147 significant water restitutions.

(Water Risk Filter) 

Country Water Profile

Coming Soon

Organizations in Romania

Earthwatch is an International NGO which focusses on scientific research and education about environmental issues. Earthwatch run FreshWater Watch, an employee engagement programme which raises awareness of fresh water issues through hands-on Citizen Science Leader training days. In addition to … Learn More

Developing European Environmental Policy The European Commission develops and implements EU policies by proposing laws to the European Parliament and Council of the European Union helping EU countries implement EU legislation managing the EU's budget and allocating funding ensuring that … Learn More

HPC's three main areas of excellence in the day to day business are: • Environmental Consultancy • Infrastructure Planning • Site Recycling HPC has 350 staff throughout Europe and an annual turnover of approx. 40 Mil EUROS. HPC is the … Learn More

We are providing clean drinking water with the SOWAT filtration system. Our SOWAT system is a unique technology, providing drinkable water from any source (e.g. river or wells) only by physical filtration principle without using chemicals, reversed osmoses or UVC. … Learn More

The Coca-ColaCompany is the world's largest beverage company. The purpose of company is to refresh the world and make a difference. Our vision is to craft the brands and choice of drinks that people love, to refresh them in body … Learn More

Projects in Romania

Every Drop Matters (EDM) is a unique partnership between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and The Coca-Cola Company, which works across Europe and the CIS, the Arab States and Asia. Since they joined forces in 2006, the partners have … Learn More

Created in 2009 this projects aims at: Regenerating Transylvania’s forest ecosystems by planting native tree species in carefully selected locations, Promoting environmental awareness among school students by involving them in the planting of the trees and the maintenance of orchards … Learn More

Reconnecting floodplains to restore ecosystem services and re-establish biodiversity, this project focuses on restoring the cut-off floodplains to the Danube for the benefit of people, habitats and species. The project focuses on improving knowledge on habitat locations and conditions, helping … Learn More

Electrolux tracks and follows water consumption on a monthly basis, and has implemented a water best practice toolbox. Electrolux has carried out a water risk study based WWFs water risk filter, to identify sites where water shortages pose risks to … Learn More

   Loading Suggested Resources

   Loading Lessons