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Croatia

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Croatia

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Area: 5888268 km2
Countries:
Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Cities:
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
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Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $103,301,731.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $14,564,761.00 - [14%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $31,014,904.00 - [30%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $5,654,307.00 - [5%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $34,850,804.00 - [34%]
  • Water Scarcity: --
  • Water Management: $17,216,955.00 - [17%]

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

No challenges found.

Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES Croatia is endowed with relatively abundant water resources and characterized by major rivers and the karst coastal area. Water resources differ in size and distribution in time and space. Water management includes a number of activities and measures aimed at maintaining, improving and ensuring the unity of the water regime in a specific area. The water regime is underpinned by essential water management principles and plans. With a national territory of 87,609km2, Croatia is at the meeting point of the Pannonian Plain, the Balkans and the Adriatic. The country straddles the border of two major catchment areas: the Danube Basin and the Adriatic Sea. Draining over 62 per cent of Croatia’s mainland, the Danube Basin covers the northern and central inland section of the country and is home to 69 per cent of the population. Croatian territory accounts for 4.4 per cent of the entire Danube Basin. The Croatian section is dominated by major rivers (and their tributaries), notably the Drava, the Sava and the Danube itself. Croatia has been a signatory to the Danube River Protection Convention since 1994.

1.1.2.WATER USE Croatia contains large quantities of both surface water and groundwater resources, although they are unevenly distributed. Low-lying parts of the Danube Basin are dominated by arable areas, while the upland regions of north and central Croatia are forested. The Basin is particularly unevenly populated. The majority live in the larger towns (density is greatest in Zagreb and Osijek) while other areas, particularly mountainous ones, are very sparsely populated. A major proportion of electricity generation comes from hydropower, with the Drava currently providing the largest capability. The most effective locations are already exploited; new sites could potentially cause significant environmental impacts. The Drava and the Danube are major routes for international transportation (80 per cent of goods shipped on inland waterways involve international trade) and the four-country Framework Agreement on the Sava Basin aims to further develop navigation. Discharging wastewater (both treated and untreated) into watercourses is common practice, but discharge direct into groundwater is prohibited. The majority of industrial facilities discharge into public sewerage systems; some of this discharge is then treated before release into watercourses. With regard to drinking water, 90 per cent of abstractions are from groundwater, with the remainder from rivers and reservoirs; there are few surface water intakes. An important measure for protecting drinking water aquifers is the adoption and enforcement of sanitary protection zones, a challenging task at most abstraction sites. Estimates indicate that 15 per cent of the mainland is at risk of flooding; however, the major part is protected to varying degrees. In the Sava Basin, due to the reduction in peak flows of flood waves in lowland flood storages, the middle basin plays a key role in protecting the Slavonian stretch and neighbouring countries. Measures based on lowland flood storages and expansion areas have enabled the preservation of environmentally favourable conditions on wide floodplains. In the Drava and Danube Basins, protection is based on embankments and wide foreshores.

1.2.WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH Croatia’s major environmental problems are: air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and the resulting acid rain, which damages forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife. With regard to organic load, of the 28 per cent of wastewater that is treated, 43 per cent undergoes preliminary/primary treatment and 57 per cent secondary treatment. The most serious problems occur in small settlements (up to 2,000 inhabitants), where 40 per cent of the population live. The situation in settlements with more than 10,000 inhabitants is considered satisfactory in the main. Around 44 per cent of all settlements with built sewerage systems have wastewater treatment plants. Of 109 plants, 38 involve preliminary treatment, 24 primary, 46 secondary and one tertiary. Changing economic conditions have meant many industries have constructed their own plants for preliminary treatment. At the same time, connection rates for public sewerage systems with central municipal plants have not increased at the rate predicted. Major parts of many settlements remain without connection to central treatment plants. With regard to agricultural pollution, and on the basis of processed data, the highest loads from diffuse sources are present in the Drava and Danube Basins and in the immediate Sava Basin.

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Organizations in Croatia


Developing European Environmental Policy The European Commission develops and implements EU policies by proposing laws to the European Parliament and Council of the European Union helping EU countries implement EU legislation managing the EU's budget and allocating funding ensuring that … Learn More

The European Water Partnership (EWP) is an independent value based non-profit organization structured as an open and inclusive member association. The EWP harnesses European capacity, helps to coordinate initiatives and activities in international water issues and undertakes worldwide promotion of … Learn More

Projects in Croatia


Background Ecotourism respects the resources of a Protected Area (PA) destination and the well-being of the people living in and around it whilst also, providing incentives for conservation and operating in off-season. In order for this sustainable development model to … Learn More

The Posidonia littoral zone (Posidonia-beach-dune system) is a valuable natural asset affected by a variety of impacts and pressures. Drifting vegetation of Posidonia forming banquettes along the beaches is a common feature of many coasts. However, residues of seagrass Posidonia … Learn More

Reconnecting floodplains to restore ecosystem services and re-establish biodiversity, this project focuses on restoring the cut-off floodplains to the Danube for the benefit of people, habitats and species. The project focuses on improving knowledge on habitat locations and conditions, helping … Learn More

Suggested Resources

View the full list of 300+ resources at the Water Stewardship Toolbox

CAIR-CA has put together the following guide to some of the resources for workers who have been impacted by COVID-19. Learn More

With special attention to resources for utilities, this page lists relevant guidance around water and COVID-19. Learn More

Developers: American Water Works Association

This page seeks to help water sector professionals keep informed on the attributions of the COVID-19 virus and any measures needed to protect both workers and public health, in general. Learn More

In this policy brief the ILO offers comprehensive and integrated recommendations on the key areas of policy action that should form part of that response.The brief is addressed at ILO constituents (governments, employers and workers), policy-makers and the general public. Learn More

In this Nature feature, Johan Rockstrom and co-authors argue that identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries that must not be transgressed could help prevent human activities from causing unacceptable environmental change. Learn More

Inform and strengthen your company’s water management strategies and allow your investors to evaluate current water management activities against detailed definitions of leading practice. Learn More

Developers: Ceres

An emphasis on gaps in WASH coverage and what role institutions play in battling COVID-19. Links and other resources provided. Learn More

Plan, Prepare and Respond- Breakdown for different industries on how to operate safely. Cleaning and disinfecting, Worker Safety, Support Resources, Mitigation Strategy Learn More

This report presents analysis of the response data from a sample of 783 of the world’s largest publicly listed companies. The report is aimed at companies and investors seeking to understand how they can play their part in delivering a … Learn More

The Toolbox connects your business to the latest tools, guidance, case studies, datasets, and more most relevant to you based on your circumstances and interests. It features more than 250+ resources from dozens of organizations and is updated every week. Learn More

Developers: CEO Water Mandate, Pacific Institute

This document is intended for WASH and C4D officers at country offices working together on the Covid19 outbreak preparedness and response. The document contains guidance on reviewing existing resources and coordination mechanisms, identifying the right intervention and considerations for sustainability … Learn More

Workers in office buildings may be at risk for exposure to the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Office building employers, building owners and managers, and building operations specialists can take steps to create a safe and healthy workplace … Learn More

How to ensure the safety of your occupants and building water system and devices Learn More

The campaigns, which target audiences at home and in schools, promote improved health and hygiene practices, such as handwashing, the importance of connecting to the water supply and sanitation system, regular payments for service continuity, and improving sanitation and menstrual … Learn More

Constantly updated database for California nonprofits. Contains Advocacy and support links, funding opportunities, Federal resources and information, announcements and resources, employee and employer resources, and resources for individuals. Learn More

Technical guidance, WASH preparedness, webinars, checklists for health facilities, self assessments, and guidance on disinfectants. Learn More

Includes Immediate steps, ongoing health measures that can be taken, and responsible business practice Learn More

Based on the major combat guidelines set by the São Paulo State Government, Sabesp is fully engaged to endure COVID-19 pandemic within its operation area, which means 374 municipalities located throughout São Paulo state and home to about 28 million … Learn More

Developers: Sabesp

Checklist for restoring water quality in buildings left unused for a long duration. Learn More

Developers: EPA Office of Wastewater Management

CDC/EPA Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfecting Includes Printable Materials Learn More

Best practices- Resources- Webinars on WASH/COVID-19 topics. Learn More

The purpose of this document is to provide ministries (e.g. Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Water (MOW)), sub-national public health authorities, and implementing partners with a practical framework of action to both prepare for and mitigate community transmission of … Learn More

This document gives advice on: 1. Simple ways to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in your workplace 2. How to manage COVID-19 risks when organizing meetings &amp; events 3. Things to consider when you and your employees travel 4. Getting … Learn More

The Global Water Footprint Assessment Standard can be used to provide comparable quantification and robust analytics, helping corporations, governments, and researchers manage water resources and achieve greater water sustainability. Learn More

The Committee designed this document to guide the food industry and advise its sponsoring agencies in the implementation of HACCP systems. Learn More

Om Prasad Gautam, Khairul Islam, and Erik Harvey discuss the importance of handwashing with soap and water in reducing the risk of infection from COVID-19 and highlight the water, sanitation, and hygiene sector can and should do in response to … Learn More

Adapting to climate change, coupled with the need to address aging infrastructure, population growth, and degraded ecosystems, requires significant investment in natural and built water systems. These investments present a significant opportunity to support not only water, but to provide … Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

To help our partners in responding to this health crisis in their countries, we have compiled different resources and tools around COVID-19 and WASH, which include documents, videos, social media materials with messages on public health, webinar recordings, etc. Learn More

Resources for the Long Beach community. Covers topics such as: Movement Strategy, Family Resource Government Resources Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

National Register Resources: Psychological resources and information. Learn More

OSHA has developed this interim guidance to help prevent worker exposure to SARS-CoV-2. The general guidance below applies to all U.S. workers and employers. Learn More

With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their core operations. This guide is meant as a stepping point to begin reopening with safety as a … Learn More

Guidelines for supply chain workplaces to reopen with a robust WASH plan of action. Learn More

Questions\ guidelines relating to food businesses answered by the WHO. Learn More

This guidance is intended for all Americans, whether you own a business, run a school, or want to ensure the cleanliness and safety of your home. Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

SAVEh is the platform through which Ambev shares its water management system free of charge with other companies, which has helped to reduce more than 40% of the company’s water consumption in the last 13 years. This water efficiency tool … Learn More

Developers: Ambev S/A

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Compass Business Tools inventory maps existing business tools against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It allows you to explore commonly used business tools that may be useful when assessing your organization’s impact on the SDGs. Learn More

This report is a call to action, for the immediate health response required to suppress transmission of the virus to end the pandemic, and to tackle the many social and economic dimensions of this crisis. It is, above all, a … Learn More

In response to the challenge of quantifying the business benefits, WaterAid, Diageo, GAP Inc., and Unilever have worked with PwC and ODI to develop a practical, step-by-step guide. The guide will help companies understand the business value of their WASH … Learn More

Developers: WaterAid

The Forest Stewardship Council created the Principles of Forest Stewardship as a worldwide standard to promote environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world’s forests. Learn More

The AWS Standard is a globally-applicable framework for major water users to understand their water use and impacts, and to work collaboratively and transparently for sustainable water management within a catchment context. Learn More

Developers: Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS)

This paper provides examples of how to make progress in service delivery in and beyond the workplace. With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their … Learn More

This tool is an interactive map linking nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation outcomes based on a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

A deep dive into three areas for business action:1 Responsible Marketing 2 Accelerating Collaborative Action at the Country Level 3 Building Resilience and Good Practice Solutions for Business Learn More

This report explores the possibilities of scaling a circular economy, given the reality of the global economy and the complexity of multi-tier supply chains. Learn More

Developers: World Economic Forum

This page brings together water and sanitation-related information from UN-Water Members and Partners in the light of the coronavirus global emergency. UN-Water is working to ensure the most up-to-date information, resources, and guidance as they become available. Learn More

As the world’s largest corporate sustainability initiative, the United Nations Global Compact is calling on business leaders everywhere to unite to support workers, communities, and companies affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. A coordinated international plan involving the business sector will … Learn More

New figures from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP) indicate that WASH services in health care facilities are sub-standard in every region. Learn More

Developers: UNICEF The United Nations Children's Fund

ILO Sectoral Policies and Governance and Tripartism Departments present four self-training modules, which adapt existing ILO training tools on OSH to provide governments, workers and employers with the necessary skills to implement the general principles contained in relevant ILO instruments. … Learn More

Companies are increasingly setting and pursing ‘water balance targets’ as part of their water stewardship strategies. The seeming simplicity of balance goals can be attractive – “we will restore a volume of water equal to the amount our business consumes.” … Learn More

Developers: WWF

The Water Risk Filter can be used to assess and respond to water related risks for your own operations, suppliers, or growth plans. Learn More

Developers: WWF

To combat the spread of the COVID-19 virus and rebuild our economies during and after the pandemic, collective action on water is essential. Such action can help not only to contain the virus, but also to realize the human right … Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

Safely managed water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services are an essential part of preventing and protecting human health during infectious disease outbreaks, including the current COVID-19 pandemic. Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

Outdoor Industry Association (OIA) Learn More

CTCN; UNEP Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Water Witness International; WaterAid; WBCSD Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

UNEP Learn More

IPIECA Learn More

Ceres Learn More

Ecolab Learn More

PRI; WWF Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Pegasys; Water Witness International; WWF Learn More

The World Bank Learn More

UNEP-DHI Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

UN Water Learn More

OECD Learn More

UNICEF; WHO Learn More

River Threat Netwrok Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; WWF Learn More

Swedish Textile Water Initiative Learn More

Alliance for Water Stewardship Learn More

WaterAid Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

McKinsey Learn More

Toilet Board Coalition Learn More

Conservation International Learn More

U.S. General Services Administration Learn More

National Drought Mitigation Center Learn More

UNEP Learn More

USGS Learn More

UN Water Learn More

AT&T; EDF; Global Environmental Management Institute (GEMI) Learn More

OECD Learn More

SAI Platform Learn More

Lillian Holmes
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