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Area: 5888268 km2
Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
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City & Country

Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $3,264,635,575.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $499,546,446.00 - [15%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $546,952,723.00 - [17%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $16,211,101.00 - [0%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $20,974,908.00 - [1%]
  • Water Scarcity: $1,636,844,468.00 - [50%]
  • Water Management: $544,105,929.00 - [17%]

For more about this data, see information on WRI’s Achieving Abundance dataset here.

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

Compliance with Local Regulations and Widely-Accepted Standards
Local Water Resource Governance
Upstream Water Issues

Country Overview

1.1.2.WATER USE Between 1990 and 2000 total water withdrawal increased from 2.9km3/yr to 3.4km3/yr. In 2000, 90 per cent of water withdrawal was used for agricultural purposes, 8 per cent for municipal use and 2 per cent for industrial use. Most of the water withdrawn was groundwater (from wells and springs), resulting in groundwater depletion as withdrawal exceeded the annual groundwater recharge. The rate of decline of the groundwater levels is alarmingly high in many zones, especially in the highlands, where a decline of 2-6m/yr is commonly observed. In coastal zones, overexploitation of groundwater leads to salt water intrusion. The decline in groundwater tables has also significantly reduced spring-fed irrigation. Many farmers pump groundwater from wells using diesel or electric pumps. The yield of wells is between 5 and 50l/sec. It is estimated that there are 52,000 to 55,000 active wells in Yemen. The volume of the water that is pumped every year from these wells is about 1.5km3. About 800 water well drilling rigs are in use, owned by individuals or companies which generally do not have any permits despite government legislation limiting the drilling of wells. Recently, the National Water Resources Authority started a programme of registrations and licensing for the water well drillingcompanies; the records show that in May 2005 only 70 rigs were licensed and only 1,000 wells were registered and licensed (Al-Asbahi, 2005). Two types of treated wastewater reuse in agriculture exist (Al-Asbahi, 2001): -controlled irrigation, which is practised in government projects by the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation to build the green belts, mainly in the coastal plain cities (Aden, Al Hudaydah), and for sand dune restoration or desertification control in the affected areas of coastal plains; -non-controlled irrigation (commonly in the highlands and wadis), which is practised by the farmers themselves to grow corn, fodder in some areas (Ta’iiz), and restricted and non-restricted crops, such as vegetables (tomato, carrot) and fruits (in Sana’a area). An undefined quantity of brackish water is used in the rock cutting industry, mainly in the highlands, as well as for irrigating some salt-tolerant crops, mainly in the coastal plains (Al-Asbahi, 2005).

1.2.WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH The successful and sustainable exploitation of water resources is threatened by the rapid depletion of groundwater resources. Almost all the important groundwater systems are being overexploited at an alarming rate. The socioeconomic consequences of groundwater depletion are dramatic: if the water resources are not adequately controlled, water will become too expensive for use in agriculture and, as a result, regional agricultural economies based on groundwater irrigation are doomed to collapse. Groundwater availability may be further reduced by groundwater salinization in coastal areas and groundwater pollution in urban areas and areas of intensive agriculture. A study conducted by the Tehama Development Authority (2004) reported that the electrical conductivity increased from 225 to 3,480µs/cm (at 25°C) in the Al-Jar area as a result of seawater intrusion. The Al-Jar region is located in the northwest of the Yemeni coastal area, 8km away from the Red Sea. During the last 10 years there has been a huge investment in this area, leading to the cultivation of more than 3,500 hectares of mango trees and the drilling of about 2,000 wells. In the whole country, the area cultivated with high water-consuming crops has increased, such as the area under qat, which has more than tripled in 25 years. The quality of treated wastewater varies from one area to another. While the quality is very good in Hajah, it is very bad in Ta’iiz, depending on the method of treatment as well as the capacity of the plant and the operational circumstances. The quality affects farmers’ willingness to use such water for their crops (Al-Asbahi, 2005). Moreover, the outflow of WWTPs in the coastal areas becomes a source of groundwater pollution. Environmental degradation occurs in areas where springs have dried up or where treatment plants are not able to treat oil residues and discharge the raw wastewater directly to the wadis (such as from the Sana’a station). Water scarcity leads to ever-increasing competition which, if uncontrolled, might lead to socioeconomic problems.

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Organizations in Yemen

Provide water trucking for vulnerable societies in Yemen with support of UN humanitarian relief organizations. Learn More

جمعية خيرية للتنمية الثقافية الاجتماعية Learn More

The goals of the game Education of the And information technology And fighting poverty m sustainable Learn More

HYDROC is an association of independent consultants, -scientists and -engineers, providing water-related services through a network of national and international experts. Our concept uses the synergies of our combined expertise for the successful implementation of a variety of projects. Our … Learn More

جنة البساتين للاستيراد Agri inputs, smart irrigation, animals feeds, equipments, diversified، Learn More

Academic Learn More

Water analysis Dhamar University is a modern Yemeni public university located in the city of Dhamar in Yemen. It was established on August 24, 1996 and it has been working since its inception to raise the scientific, cultural and intellectual … Learn More

The Yemeni Response Council (YRC) is an independent, nonprofit, nongovernment civil society organisation that seeks to alleviate suffering and neutral a good quality of life in Yemen in both emergency and non-emergency contexts YRC's intivatived - Which revolve around ai, … Learn More

Projects in Yemen

Provide water trucking to the most vulnerable societies in Yemen where most of people have been prevented from accessing safe drinking water due to ongoing conflict. Learn More

To strengthen global portfolio experience sharing and learning, dialogue facilitation, targeted knowledge sharing and replication in order to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of GEF IW projects to deliver tangible results in partnership with other IW initiatives.Project ResultsThe GEF increment … Learn More

Providing pure drinking water in all governorates of the Republic of Yemen Maintenance of drinking water wells available Operating the water wells in the neighboring villages Providing clean sources of drinking water by drilling wellsProject ResultsProviding pure drinking water to … Learn More

Yemen has limited water resources. Hence, the protection of these resources from misuses and providing alternative resources have to be a high priority for the country’s national water strategy and to the international community. Water scarcity collides with rapid population … Learn More

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Eng.Hamza Alhaj
Waleed Kamil
Oleksii Ovsiankin
Water Action Hub Team
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