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Taiwan, Province of China

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Taiwan, Province of China

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Water Challenges

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Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES The main characteristics of Taiwan’s rivers are as follows: •21 major rivers, 29 secondary rivers and 79 minor rivers; •Relatively small drainage area, only nine rivers exceed 100km2; •Relatively short length, only six rivers exceed 100km; •Relatively steep slope, upstream reaches exceed l/100, downstream reaches I/200-l/500, only five rivers have slope milder than l/1000; •Poor watershed geological conditions; most watersheds are sandstone and shale and easy-tocollapse. Sediment concentrations are huge. There are also special geological structures such as mudstone and conglomerate which can easily become mudflow; •Concentrated rainfall, rapid flows, poor flow conditions, uneven time distribution of flows and rapid rise of flow peak.

1.1.2.WATER USE Agriculture is the major water user in Taiwan, accounting for 78 per cent of all use. The construction of a major canal from south to north is envisaged to alleviate water scarcity in the north. Seasonal variations of water availability, causing floods and droughts, are a major problem. Industrial pollution affects many rivers. Natural contamination of groundwater with arsenic and fluoride affects the drinking water supply of about 4 per cent of the population. Water resources management is fragmented among various agencies and levels of government.

1.2.WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH The following factors influence water quality in the country: •The population density of Taiwan is the second highest in the world. Domestic sewage is the major source of water pollution for many Taiwanese urban rivers. •Wastewater from the swine industry used to be a major water pollution source. Domestic pig farms are gradually becoming smaller after joining the World Trade Organization, but there are still about 7 million pigs being raised in Taiwan. •Over the last three decades Taiwan has begun to develop itself into a big international trading economy. There are nearly 11,000 factories in the country, whose manufacturing processes usually produce wastewater containing various contaminants.

2. GOVERNANCE ASPECTS 2.1.WATER INSTITUTIONS On 16 December 1972, President Chiang Ching-kuo, making an important urban development policy statement, gave the following instructions: “In order develop a public water supply system island-wide, a water corporation must be established immediately at the provincial level. At the same time, we must speed up the implementation of long-term plans for the development of water supply in order to concentrate human and financial resources, increase investment benefits and reduce operational cost.” In accordance with these instructions, on 1 April 1973, the Taiwan provincial government set up a preparatory office for the Taiwan Water Corporation, which now draws up plans for unified management and long-term development.

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Organizations in Taiwan, Province of China


AUO is a global leader in optoelectronic solutions as well as the first pure TFT-LCD manufacturer to have been successfully listed at the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Sustainable development is the goal of AUO. We embrace the highest standards ... Learn More

Acbel Polytech Inc offers a wide range of custom design and high quality power supplies that provide a wide range applications including information technology, communication, consumer electronics, networks and industrial automation. In light of the challenges posed by global warming ... Learn More

ASE develops and offers complete turnkey solutions covering front-end engineering tests, wafer probing and final tests, as well as IC packaging, materials and electronic manufacturing services through USI with superior technologies, breakthrough innovations, and advanced development programs. In order to ... Learn More

China Steel Corporation (CSC) produces a range of products including plates, bars, wire rods, hot and cold rolled coils, electrogalvanized coils, electrical steel coils, hot-dip galvanized coils, and Ti/Ni-base alloy. Learn More

Higher Education Learn More

Nuvoton Technology Corporation is a Taiwan-based semiconductor company established in 2008. The company is working to reduce water consumption at facilities off of basins in Northern Taiwan Learn More

UMC is a leading global semiconductor foundry that provides advanced IC production for applications spanning every major sector of the electronics industry. Learn More

The Water Resilience Coalition, founded in 2020, is an industry-driven, CEO-led coalition of the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate that aims to elevate global water stress to the top of the corporate agenda and preserve the world's freshwater resources ... Learn More

Zhen Ding Technology Holding Limited (ZDT) was established on June 5th, 2006. ZDT specializes in manufacturing Flexible Printed Circuit (FPC), High Density Interconnection (HDI), Rigid Printed Circuit Board (R-PCB) and Integrated Circuit Substrate (ICS). These products are broadly applied in ... Learn More

Projects in Taiwan, Province of China


ASE increased capital expenditure to improve the efficiency and capacity of waste water treatment equipment, enhance the construction of waste water treatment hardware and materials, and reduce the situation that waste water violates local standards.Project ResultsImprove water quality Learn More

Project WET is currently active in more than 75 countries around the world through a network of partner organizations that range from small NGOs to major international corporations and organizations. We only go where we’re invited! We work with our ... Learn More

The legislation of the Reclaimed Water Resources Development Act in 2014 has paved the way for domestic sewage to become a stable source of systemic reclaimed water. Coupled with the allocation of government budget towards the construction of the “six ... Learn More

Water restrictions in this basin may last up to 2-3 months. In order to avoid the shortage of water supply, ASE suppliers have been asked to assist in the supply of water in the past. However, in addition to the ... Learn More

CSC will import sewage reclaimed water. It is expected that the CSC can import 24,000 tons of recycled water per day from September 2018, and the capacity of recycled water plant will increase to 45,000 tons per day in September ... Learn More

BLH Aqua Technology is a Korea-based water efficiency enhancement company with the main focus on agriculture. We have developed a water treatment product - Aqutonix - which we manufacture in-house and deploy on all types of farms worldwide. Aqutonix uses ... Learn More

We have been developing many kinds of elemental technologies such as water rinsing efficiency , reduction of intake air amount and optimization of temperature controlling energy sequence and integrating them for minimizing total water and energy consumption.Project Results Learn More

At AU Optronics Taiwan site we invested in an engineering improvement of water use efficiency costs 40 million TWD in 2014, our site boasts zero discharge of processing water costs 1 billion TWD for the pilot site, and a 90% ... Learn More

Suggested Resources

View the full list of 300+ resources at the Water Stewardship Toolbox

This Working Paper proposes a method whereby any decision-maker can calculate the cost required to deliver sustainable water management to a geography. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

Inform and strengthen your company’s water management strategies and allow your investors to evaluate current water management activities against detailed definitions of leading practice. Learn More

Developers: Ceres

In this Nature feature, Johan Rockstrom and co-authors argue that identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries that must not be transgressed could help prevent human activities from causing unacceptable environmental change. Learn More

Nature-based solution (NBS) can improve degraded ecosystems, help sequester carbon, and manage the effects of climate change, including extreme weather events. Businesses are beginning to recognize the value of NBS for climate change mitigation, adaptation, and resilience. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

Plan, Prepare and Respond- Breakdown for different industries on how to operate safely. Cleaning and disinfecting, Worker Safety, Support Resources, Mitigation Strategy Learn More

This report presents analysis of the response data from a sample of 783 of the world’s largest publicly listed companies. The report is aimed at companies and investors seeking to understand how they can play their part in delivering a ... Learn More

The Toolbox connects your business to the latest tools, guidance, case studies, datasets, and more most relevant to you based on your circumstances and interests. It features more than 250+ resources from dozens of organizations and is updated every week. Learn More

Developers: CEO Water Mandate, Pacific Institute

Checklist for restoring water quality in buildings left unused for a long duration. Learn More

Developers: EPA Office of Wastewater Management

CDC/EPA Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfecting Includes Printable Materials Learn More

This report makes the case for private sector investment in green infrastructure as part of a broader water stewardship approach. Learn More

Developers: BHP

Includes Immediate steps, ongoing health measures that can be taken, and responsible business practice Learn More

Based on the major combat guidelines set by the São Paulo State Government, Sabesp is fully engaged to endure COVID-19 pandemic within its operation area, which means 374 municipalities located throughout São Paulo state and home to about 28 million ... Learn More

Developers: Sabesp

Best practices- Resources- Webinars on WASH/COVID-19 topics. Learn More

Urban stormwater is becoming an increasingly important alternative water supply in California. However, current economic analyses do not adequately evaluate co-benefits provided by different stormwater investments. As a result, urban stormwater capture is undervalued. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

NBS offer a promising contribution on how to enhance the availability and quality of water for productive purposes and human consumption, while preserving ecosystems. In this discussion paper, 21 case studies of water management processes are analysed, using a non-representative ... Learn More

FAO has been emphasizing the need to accelerate a global transition to sustainable food and agriculture systems, advocating an integrated approach. This document focuses on the management of water for agricultural use. Learn More

The Global Water Footprint Assessment Standard can be used to provide comparable quantification and robust analytics, helping corporations, governments, and researchers manage water resources and achieve greater water sustainability. Learn More

This guide outlines why and how investors engage on agricultural supply chain water risk. Learn More

Developers: WWF

The Committee designed this document to guide the food industry and advise its sponsoring agencies in the implementation of HACCP systems. Learn More

Adapting to climate change, coupled with the need to address aging infrastructure, population growth, and degraded ecosystems, requires significant investment in natural and built water systems. These investments present a significant opportunity to support not only water, but to provide ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

To provide guidance and a global framework for the design, verification and scaling up of Nature-based Solutions. The Standard includes globally consistent Criteria and Indicators, which are supported by the Principles for Nature-based Solutions, to measure the strength of interventions. Learn More

Developers: International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

To help our partners in responding to this health crisis in their countries, we have compiled different resources and tools around COVID-19 and WASH, which include documents, videos, social media materials with messages on public health, webinar recordings, etc. Learn More

With special attention to resources for utilities, this page lists relevant guidance around water and COVID-19. Learn More

Developers: American Water Works Association

This page seeks to help water sector professionals keep informed on the attributions of the COVID-19 virus and any measures needed to protect both workers and public health, in general. Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

This article presents the state of knowledge with regard to human health and well-being from contact with nature. Learn More

The United Nations World Water Development Report for 2018. Learn More

With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their core operations. This guide is meant as a stepping point to begin reopening with safety as a ... Learn More

During an infectious disease outbreak, such as the current outbreak of COVID-19, small business owners must prepare for disruption in their business as well as prepare to protect their employees’ health and safety in the workplace. These steps are recommended ... Learn More

This report shows how putting nature to work can help deliver infrastructure services with greater impact and lower cost, all the while reducing risks from disaster, boosting water security and enhancing climate resilience. Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

This report seeks to provide an overview of the three leading water tools available for corporate water risk assessment. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

SAVEh is the platform through which Ambev shares its water management system free of charge with other companies, which has helped to reduce more than 40% of the company’s water consumption in the last 13 years. This water efficiency tool ... Learn More

Developers: Ambev S/A

The Colorado River Basin states face significant water challenges, including the overallocation of water, long-term drought, and climate change. This report, commissioned by the Walton Family Foundation, explores the potential for corporate water stewardship to help solve these challenges. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The City of Austin, Texas is facing an increasingly uncertain water future, from decreasing water supplies and more intense droughts to periodic flooding and water quality impairments. Austin is addressing these challenges head on, from investments in water efficiency and ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Compass Business Tools inventory maps existing business tools against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It allows you to explore commonly used business tools that may be useful when assessing your organization’s impact on the SDGs. Learn More

The world’s water resources are under increasing pressure from rising water consumption, pollution, and climate variability. The variety of water challenges companies face, from water governance issues to extreme events like drought, manifest in the river basins where the companies ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

This report provides findings on good practices of AWS Standard implementation. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The Soil &amp; Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a small watershed to river basin-scale model used to simulate the quality and quantity of surface and ground water and predict the environmental impact of land use, land management practices and climate ... Learn More

In response to the challenge of quantifying the business benefits, WaterAid, Diageo, GAP Inc., and Unilever have worked with PwC and ODI to develop a practical, step-by-step guide. The guide will help companies understand the business value of their WASH ... Learn More

Developers: WaterAid

The Sustainable Rice Platform (SRP) Standard for Sustainable Rice Cultivation is the world’s first voluntary sustainability standard for rice. The standard is complemented by a set of 12 quantitative performance indicators. By identifying “hotspots,” the indicators enable users to monitor ... Learn More

The Forest Stewardship Council created the Principles of Forest Stewardship as a worldwide standard to promote environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world’s forests. Learn More

The AWS Standard is a globally-applicable framework for major water users to understand their water use and impacts, and to work collaboratively and transparently for sustainable water management within a catchment context. Learn More

Developers: Alliance for Water Stewardship

This paper provides examples of how to make progress in service delivery in and beyond the workplace. With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their ... Learn More

This special Academy session covered steps businesses can take to respect and support the rights and lives of women and girls during the COVID-19 pandemic. Learn More

This tool is an interactive map linking nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation outcomes based on a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

This report explores the possibilities of scaling a circular economy, given the reality of the global economy and the complexity of multi-tier supply chains. Learn More

Developers: World Economic Forum

Water is the lifeblood of California, providing for the household needs of 40 million people and supporting one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world, various commercial and industrial activities, and the health and viability of the state’s ... Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

ILO Sectoral Policies and Governance and Tripartism Departments present four self-training modules, which adapt existing ILO training tools on OSH to provide governments, workers and employers with the necessary skills to implement the general principles contained in relevant ILO instruments. ... Learn More

Companies are increasingly setting and pursing ‘water balance targets’ as part of their water stewardship strategies. The seeming simplicity of balance goals can be attractive – “we will restore a volume of water equal to the amount our business consumes.” ... Learn More

Developers: WWF

This report calls for an integrated approach that brings together governments, water users, and the society at large including the private sector, NGOs, and academia to design smart, adaptable and sustainable solutions for water infrastructure impacted by climate change. Learn More

The Water Risk Filter can be used to assess and respond to water related risks for your own operations, suppliers, or growth plans. Learn More

Developers: WWF

The Water Risk Filter can be used to assess and respond to water-related risks for your own operations, suppliers, or growth plans. Learn More

Developers: WWF

Safely managed water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services are an essential part of preventing and protecting human health during infectious disease outbreaks, including the current COVID-19 pandemic. Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

Outdoor Industry Association (OIA) Learn More

CTCN; UNEP Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Water Witness International; WaterAid; WBCSD Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

UNEP Learn More

IPIECA Learn More

Ecolab Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Pegasys; Water Witness International; WWF Learn More

The World Bank Learn More

UNEP-DHI Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

UN Water Learn More

OECD Learn More

UNICEF; WHO Learn More

River Threat Netwrok Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; WWF Learn More

Swedish Textile Water Initiative Learn More

Alliance for Water Stewardship Learn More

WaterAid Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

McKinsey Learn More

Toilet Board Coalition Learn More

Conservation International Learn More

UNEP Learn More

U.S. General Services Administration Learn More

National Drought Mitigation Center Learn More

USGS Learn More

UN Water Learn More

AT&T; EDF; Global Environmental Management Institute (GEMI) Learn More

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