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Area: 5888268 km2
Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
HydroBasin Level:
Baseline Water Stress:
Water Quality Stress:
Sanitation Access Stress:
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City & Country

Quick Info

2.99 out of 5
WWF Country Risk Score
42 out of 248 Countries
WWF Country Rank
Total Organizations: 2
Total Projects: 2
Priority SDGs: Sustainable Agriculture (SDG 2.4)
Increase Access to Water, Sanitation, Hygiene (SDG 6.1 & 6.2)
Water Quality (SDG 6.3)
Integrated Water Resource Management (SDG 6.5)
International Cooperation and Capacity Building (SDG 6.a)
Water-Related Disaster Management (SDG 11.5)
Climate Resilience and Adaptation (SDG 13.1)
Priority Regions: Maputo
Priority Industries: Apparel
Food, beverage & agriculture
Power generation
Organization Types:
International Organization
Profile Completion: 73%

Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $164,899,232.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $53,324,107.00 - [32%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $60,092,495.00 - [36%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $1,306,671.00 - [1%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $5,234,765.00 - [3%]
  • Water Scarcity: $17,457,989.00 - [11%]
  • Water Management: $27,483,205.00 - [17%]

For more about this data, see information on WRI’s Achieving Abundance dataset here.

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

Local Water Resource Governance
Upstream Water Issues

Country Overview

1.1.2.WATER USE Total water withdrawal for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes is estimated at just over 1km3. Over 95 per cent of the water resources in the country are used for irrigation. In Swaziland, water is used in various sectors such as domestic supply, industry, forestry, hydropower and irrigation. Growing population and increased economic development has led to higher water use and increased competition among water users for scarce resources. The development of water resources by neighbouring states also necessarily results in the decrease of water available for use in the country (NWP, 2009). Agriculture presently makes the largest contribution to the Swaziland economy, largely through irrigated plantations. Irrigation uses about 96 per cent of the country’s surface water resources, mostly for growing sugarcane. There is no longer any scope for increased irrigation development without the construction of new dams or the large-scale application of water demand management measures in the irrigation sector. With the growing industrial sector and rising interest in tourism and recreational activities involving water bodies, the pressure on water resources is increased. The need for policy guidance and coordination in water resources management becomes ever more apparent (NWP, 2009). Water supply and sanitation standards, like those of water supply, deteriorate as one moves from urban areas to peri-urban and finally to rural areas. The 2006 Poverty Reduction Strategy and Action Plan assert that only 45 per cent of people in rural areas have proper sanitation facilities. In urban areas, 63 per cent of households use flush-toilets and the rest either use pit latrines or the bush. It is the intention of the Swaziland government that all people have access to a minimum of 30L of safe and clean water per capita per day at a distance of no more than 200m. The Department of Water Affairs is striving to increase the number of water sources. However, a significant number of water supply systems are not serviced due to management, maintenance, affordability and water quality problems (NWP, 2009).

2.1.WATER INSTITUTIONS The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy (MNRE) is responsible for assessment, monitoring, management and allocation of water resources in the country. It has several branches responsible for specific activities. The Water Resource Branch is responsible for stream flow observation, planning of water resources and control of pollution, while the Rural Water Supply Branch is responsible for water supply and sanitation in rural areas. The Groundwater Unit of the Geological Surveys and Mines Branch is responsible for drilling boreholes and monitoring the withdrawal of underground water. The Swaziland Water Service Corporation, a parastatal organization, is responsible for urban and peri-urban water supply and sanitation. The Swaziland Environment Authority is responsible for pollution control and allocation of compliance certificates after proponents of development projects have submitted environmental impact assessment reports and comprehensive mitigation plans. The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives constructs small earth dams and assists farmers with the use of water resources.

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Organizations in Swaziland

HYDROC is an association of independent consultants, -scientists and -engineers, providing water-related services through a network of national and international experts. Our concept uses the synergies of our combined expertise for the successful implementation of a variety of projects. Our … Learn More

Our focus is on designing, manufacturing and supplying sanitation solutions that impact positively on the enviornment and thereby contributing to SDG 6 directly, but indirectly on SDG 3. Our toilet products are designed to operate without water for flushing, and … Learn More

Projects in Swaziland

WaterAid supplied five handwashing facilities in rural areas of Eswatini. Close to 150,000 people will be able to use these facilities. Local governments and community leaders have pledged to ensure that these facilities are maintained after the pandemic. In addition, … Learn More

Mpofu community is one of the communities that lack access to safe and potable water in the Hhohho region. This was a persisting challenge for the past years. The community use to have access to potable water through a reticulated … Learn More

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