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Sri Lanka

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Area: 5888268 km2
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Brazil; Peru; Suriname; France; Colombia; Guyana; Bolivia; Venezuela; Ecuador
Cities:
Santa Cruz; Manaus; La Paz
PFAF ID:
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Baseline Water Stress:
Water Quality Stress:
Sanitation Access Stress:
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Quick Info

3.24 out of 5
WWF Country Risk Score
22 out of 248 Countries
WWF Country Rank
Total Organizations: 6
Total Projects: 2
Priority SDGs: Increase Access to Water, Sanitation, Hygiene (SDG 6.1 & 6.2)
Water Quality (SDG 6.3)
Water Use Efficiency (SDG 6.4)
Integrated Water Resource Management (SDG 6.5)
Protect and Restore Ecosystems (SDG 6.6)
Stakeholder Participation (SDG 6.b)
Water-Related Disaster Management (SDG 11.5)
Sustainable Production (SDG 12.4)
Climate Resilience and Adaptation (SDG 13.1)
Priority Regions: --
Priority Industries: Biotech, health care & pharma
Food, beverage & agriculture
Power generation
Retail
Organization Types:
50%
Business
17%
Bilateral and / or Intergovernmental Agency
17%
International Organization
17%
NGO / Civil Society
Profile Completion: 91%

Water-Related Challenge Costs

Total annual estimated cost to address all water-related challenges: $3,218,690,167.00

Share of total annual estimated cost to address each individual challenge (2015 $USD):

  • Access to Drinking Water: $477,459,869.00 - [15%]
  • Access to Sanitation: $373,659,793.00 - [12%]
  • Industrial Pollution: $314,393,151.00 - [10%]
  • Agricultural Pollution: $161,059,718.00 - [5%]
  • Water Scarcity: $1,355,669,275.00 - [42%]
  • Water Management: $536,448,361.00 - [17%]

Water Challenges

As reported by organizations on the Hub.

33.3%
Access to Water Supply and Water Services
33.3%
Land Use Issues
33.3%
Local Water Resource Governance

Country Overview

1.1.1.WATER RESOURCES Sri Lanka’s radial network of rivers begins in the central highlands. There are about 103 distinct river basins covering 90 per cent of the country. The southwest quarter of the island has seven major basins with catchment areas ranging from 620 to 2,700km². They are: Kelani ganga (2,292km²), Kalu ganga (2,719km²), Maha oya (1,528km²), Attanagalla oya (736km²), Gin ganga (932km²), Nilwala ganga (971km²) and Bentota ganga (629km²). An exception to the radial pattern is the largest basin, that of the 335km-long Mahaweli River, which has a catchment area of 10,448km². After leaving the central highlands, it runs north for 90km from Minipe to Manampitiya and then a further 70km through several distributaries as far as Verugal and Mutur on the east coast. Most Sri Lankan river basins are small; only 17 of the 103 basins exceed 1,000km². In addition to the Mahaweli basin, four others are larger than 2,500km². Three of these (Deduru oya, Kala oya and Malwatu oya) have their entire catchment area in the dry zone. Only Kalu ganga is in the wet zone. Total runoff in Sri Lanka is estimated at 49.2 km3/yr. Groundwater resources have been extensively used since ancient times for domestic purposes using shallow open wells in almost all parts of the country. Sri Lanka’s largest aquifer extends over 200km in the northwestern and northern coastal areas. There are about 15,000 tube-wells in the country. The quality of the groundwater is generally fairly good and relatively constant throughout the year. However, in some parts of the country (northern and northwestern coastal areas) excessive concentrations of iron and nitrates (due to agrochemicals and fertilizers) have been reported. Furthermore, due to uncontrolled abstraction of groundwater for domestic and agricultural uses, brackish water intrusion has occurred in the coastal areas. In 1985, estimated internal renewable groundwater resources were 7.8km3, most (around 7km3/yr) returning to the river systems and being included in the surface water resources estimate. In 1991, the total internal renewable water resources of the country were estimated at 50km³/yr. Economic development, population pressure and growing demand for food production, electric power and adequate water and sanitation services are placing increasing pressure on water resources. The demand for water has outstripped supply, particularly in the country’s dry zone, where most irrigation schemes are located. In 1996, total dam capacity in Sri Lanka was 5.942km3. Dams in Sri Lanka are classed according to the materials they use. They are mainly earthen, rockfill or concrete dams. Earthen dams are the most common type, the longest being the Parakrama Samudraya Dam, which is 13.5km long with a storage capacity of 0.12km3. The highest in this category is the Senanayake Samudraya Dam at 44m, with a storage capacity of 0.95km3. The Victoria dam, built under the Mahaweli multipurpose project, is the highest concrete (double curvature) dam, with a height of 106m and storage capacity of 0.73km3. The gross theoretical hydropower potential in Sri Lanka is estimated at 8,000 GWh/yr. In 1997, 16 hydropower plants were in operation with an installed capacity of 1,103MW. Hydropower accounted for 81 per cent of electricity generation in Sri Lanka.

1.1.2.WATER USE Large-scale development of water resources for irrigation and hydropower has progressed rapidly over the last 50 years. In Sri Lanka, the quantities of water required for industrial and domestic uses are low compared to irrigation and hydropower. In 1990, water withdrawal for agricultural activities was estimated at 9.38km3. The corresponding values for domestic and industrial activities were 0.195km3 each. Groundwater is an important source of water for irrigation and domestic use. It is increasingly used as drinking water, especially in small towns and rural areas. The total estimated water demand for 2000 was 10.92km3. Of this, 90 per cent was for agriculture, 7 per cent for domestic purposes and 3 per cent for industry. Supply of drinkable water to communities is in the early stages of development. In 1992, 53 per cent of the population (87 per cent of the urban and 49 per cent of the rural population) had access to safe drinking water. Other people used unprotected wells, rivers and tanks. High incidences of water-illnesses (120,000 recorded hospitalizations per year for diarrhoea) indicate that there is a serious water quality problem. The government has given high priority to providing water supply to urban communities where groundwater is contaminated. The government spends about US$45 million/yr to provide the population with piped water. Sri Lanka’s only public sewer system is in Colombo. It serves about 20 per cent of the Colombo metropolitan region and the collection is not treated. Very few industries have treatment plants while others discharge straight into waterways.

1.2.WATER QUALITY, ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH Major environmental problems in Sri Lanka include: deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; and air pollution in Colombo.

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Organizations in Sri Lanka


Developing European Environmental Policy The European Commission develops and implements EU policies by proposing laws to the European Parliament and Council of the European Union helping EU countries implement EU legislation managing the EU's budget and allocating funding ensuring that … Learn More

The Global Water Partnership (GWP) is a global action network with over 3,000 Partner organisations in 179 countries. The network has 68 accredited Country Water Partnerships and 13 Regional Water Partnerships. The network is open to all organisations involved in … Learn More

Hayleys PLC is a Sri Lankan multinational & diversified conglomerate. The company operates through seven broad segments: Global Markets and Manufacturing, Agriculture, Power and Energy, domestic and industrial lighting, Transportation and Logistics, Leisure and Aviation, Consumer, and Investments and Services. Learn More

Conserve water and help secure water access in those areas at greatest risk: Implement tools to reduce the water footprint of our hotels Mitigate water risk through stakeholder collaboration to deliver water stewardship at basin level Collaborate to ensure adequate … Learn More

To use technology to challenge poverty in transitional economic context; working with poor people to Build their capabilities Improve their access to technical options and knowledge, and Help them influence the social, economic and institutional systems for innovation and use … Learn More

Produce and market quality teas that delight our customers... Drive sustainable growth... Enhance shareholder value... Learn More

Projects in Sri Lanka


Every Drop Matters (EDM) is a unique partnership between the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and The Coca-Cola Company, which works across Europe and the CIS, the Arab States and Asia. Since they joined forces in 2006, the partners have … Learn More

Project Overview The project 'Strengthening the Resilience of Smallholder Farmers in the Dry Zone to Climate Variability and Extreme Events' (2017-2024) is working to address water quality and quantity issues impacting people who are dependent upon village irrigation systems in … Learn More

Suggested Resources

View the full list of 300+ resources at the Water Stewardship Toolbox

CAIR-CA has put together the following guide to some of the resources for workers who have been impacted by COVID-19. Learn More

With special attention to resources for utilities, this page lists relevant guidance around water and COVID-19. Learn More

Developers: American Water Works Association

This page seeks to help water sector professionals keep informed on the attributions of the COVID-19 virus and any measures needed to protect both workers and public health, in general. Learn More

In this policy brief the ILO offers comprehensive and integrated recommendations on the key areas of policy action that should form part of that response.The brief is addressed at ILO constituents (governments, employers and workers), policy-makers and the general public. Learn More

In this Nature feature, Johan Rockstrom and co-authors argue that identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries that must not be transgressed could help prevent human activities from causing unacceptable environmental change. Learn More

Inform and strengthen your company’s water management strategies and allow your investors to evaluate current water management activities against detailed definitions of leading practice. Learn More

Developers: Ceres

Nature-based solution (NBS) can improve degraded ecosystems, help sequester carbon, and manage the effects of climate change, including extreme weather events. Businesses are beginning to recognize the value of NBS for climate change mitigation, adaptation, and resilience. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

Developed by a group of leading beverage businesses, this is an easy-to-use excel tool for beverage facilities to estimate direct costs associated with their most water- and resource- intensive processes, beyond just the cost of water from the tap. The … Learn More

An emphasis on gaps in WASH coverage and what role institutions play in battling COVID-19. Links and other resources provided. Learn More

Plan, Prepare and Respond- Breakdown for different industries on how to operate safely. Cleaning and disinfecting, Worker Safety, Support Resources, Mitigation Strategy Learn More

This report presents analysis of the response data from a sample of 783 of the world’s largest publicly listed companies. The report is aimed at companies and investors seeking to understand how they can play their part in delivering a … Learn More

The Toolbox connects your business to the latest tools, guidance, case studies, datasets, and more most relevant to you based on your circumstances and interests. It features more than 250+ resources from dozens of organizations and is updated every week. Learn More

Developers: CEO Water Mandate, Pacific Institute

This document is intended for WASH and C4D officers at country offices working together on the Covid19 outbreak preparedness and response. The document contains guidance on reviewing existing resources and coordination mechanisms, identifying the right intervention and considerations for sustainability … Learn More

Workers in office buildings may be at risk for exposure to the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Office building employers, building owners and managers, and building operations specialists can take steps to create a safe and healthy workplace … Learn More

How to ensure the safety of your occupants and building water system and devices Learn More

The campaigns, which target audiences at home and in schools, promote improved health and hygiene practices, such as handwashing, the importance of connecting to the water supply and sanitation system, regular payments for service continuity, and improving sanitation and menstrual … Learn More

Constantly updated database for California nonprofits. Contains Advocacy and support links, funding opportunities, Federal resources and information, announcements and resources, employee and employer resources, and resources for individuals. Learn More

Technical guidance, WASH preparedness, webinars, checklists for health facilities, self assessments, and guidance on disinfectants. Learn More

The purpose of these guidelines is to highlight additional measures so that the integrity of the food chain is maintained, and that adequate and safe food supplies are available for consumers. Learn More

Includes Immediate steps, ongoing health measures that can be taken, and responsible business practice Learn More

Based on the major combat guidelines set by the São Paulo State Government, Sabesp is fully engaged to endure COVID-19 pandemic within its operation area, which means 374 municipalities located throughout São Paulo state and home to about 28 million … Learn More

Developers: Sabesp

Checklist for restoring water quality in buildings left unused for a long duration. Learn More

Developers: EPA Office of Wastewater Management

CDC/EPA Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfecting Includes Printable Materials Learn More

Best practices- Resources- Webinars on WASH/COVID-19 topics. Learn More

NBS offer a promising contribution on how to enhance the availability and quality of water for productive purposes and human consumption, while preserving ecosystems. In this discussion paper, 21 case studies of water management processes are analysed, using a non-representative … Learn More

FAO has been emphasizing the need to accelerate a global transition to sustainable food and agriculture systems, advocating an integrated approach. This document focuses on the management of water for agricultural use. Learn More

The purpose of this document is to provide ministries (e.g. Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Water (MOW)), sub-national public health authorities, and implementing partners with a practical framework of action to both prepare for and mitigate community transmission of … Learn More

This document gives advice on: 1. Simple ways to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in your workplace 2. How to manage COVID-19 risks when organizing meetings &amp; events 3. Things to consider when you and your employees travel 4. Getting … Learn More

The Global Water Footprint Assessment Standard can be used to provide comparable quantification and robust analytics, helping corporations, governments, and researchers manage water resources and achieve greater water sustainability. Learn More

This guide outlines why and how investors engage on agricultural supply chain water risk. Learn More

Developers: WWF

The Committee designed this document to guide the food industry and advise its sponsoring agencies in the implementation of HACCP systems. Learn More

In this link, you will find an overview of our measures and initiatives to support the health and livelihood of employees and communities in which we operate. Our three guiding principles: Health, safety, and trust of our people Safeguard the … Learn More

Developers: Heineken

Om Prasad Gautam, Khairul Islam, and Erik Harvey discuss the importance of handwashing with soap and water in reducing the risk of infection from COVID-19 and highlight the water, sanitation, and hygiene sector can and should do in response to … Learn More

Adapting to climate change, coupled with the need to address aging infrastructure, population growth, and degraded ecosystems, requires significant investment in natural and built water systems. These investments present a significant opportunity to support not only water, but to provide … Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

To help our partners in responding to this health crisis in their countries, we have compiled different resources and tools around COVID-19 and WASH, which include documents, videos, social media materials with messages on public health, webinar recordings, etc. Learn More

Resources for the Long Beach community. Covers topics such as: Movement Strategy, Family Resource Government Resources Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

National Register Resources: Psychological resources and information. Learn More

OSHA has developed this interim guidance to help prevent worker exposure to SARS-CoV-2. The general guidance below applies to all U.S. workers and employers. Learn More

With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their core operations. This guide is meant as a stepping point to begin reopening with safety as a … Learn More

During an infectious disease outbreak, such as the current outbreak of COVID-19, small business owners must prepare for disruption in their business as well as prepare to protect their employees’ health and safety in the workplace. These steps are recommended … Learn More

Guidelines for supply chain workplaces to reopen with a robust WASH plan of action. Learn More

This report shows how putting nature to work can help deliver infrastructure services with greater impact and lower cost, all the while reducing risks from disaster, boosting water security and enhancing climate resilience. Learn More

The Coca-Cola Company is quantifying the water-related “Replenish” benefits derived through its Community Water Partnership (CWP) projects. The work described in this report builds on previous efforts, and provides a current status of quantification results for three categories of CWP … Learn More

Developers: Global Environment Technology Foundation (GETF), The Coca-Cola Company

Questions\ guidelines relating to food businesses answered by the WHO. Learn More

This guidance is intended for all Americans, whether you own a business, run a school, or want to ensure the cleanliness and safety of your home. Learn More

How to ensure the safety of staff and maintaining water quality in buildings with little or no use. Learn More

SAVEh is the platform through which Ambev shares its water management system free of charge with other companies, which has helped to reduce more than 40% of the company’s water consumption in the last 13 years. This water efficiency tool … Learn More

Developers: Ambev S/A

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Compass Business Tools inventory maps existing business tools against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It allows you to explore commonly used business tools that may be useful when assessing your organization’s impact on the SDGs. Learn More

The Colorado River Basin states face significant water challenges, including the overallocation of water, long-term drought, and climate change. This report, commissioned by the Walton Family Foundation, explores the potential for corporate water stewardship to help solve these challenges. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The City of Austin, Texas is facing an increasingly uncertain water future, from decreasing water supplies and more intense droughts to periodic flooding and water quality impairments. Austin is addressing these challenges head on, from investments in water efficiency and … Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

The world’s water resources are under increasing pressure from rising water consumption, pollution, and climate variability. The variety of water challenges companies face, from water governance issues to extreme events like drought, manifest in the river basins where the companies … Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

This report is a call to action, for the immediate health response required to suppress transmission of the virus to end the pandemic, and to tackle the many social and economic dimensions of this crisis. It is, above all, a … Learn More

The Soil &amp; Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a small watershed to river basin-scale model used to simulate the quality and quantity of surface and ground water and predict the environmental impact of land use, land management practices and climate … Learn More

In response to the challenge of quantifying the business benefits, WaterAid, Diageo, GAP Inc., and Unilever have worked with PwC and ODI to develop a practical, step-by-step guide. The guide will help companies understand the business value of their WASH … Learn More

Developers: WaterAid

The Sustainable Rice Platform (SRP) Standard for Sustainable Rice Cultivation is the world’s first voluntary sustainability standard for rice. The standard is complemented by a set of 12 quantitative performance indicators. By identifying “hotspots,” the indicators enable users to monitor … Learn More

The Forest Stewardship Council created the Principles of Forest Stewardship as a worldwide standard to promote environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world’s forests. Learn More

The AWS Standard is a globally-applicable framework for major water users to understand their water use and impacts, and to work collaboratively and transparently for sustainable water management within a catchment context. Learn More

Developers: Alliance for Water Stewardship (AWS)

This paper provides examples of how to make progress in service delivery in and beyond the workplace. With private enterprises playing a critical role in contributing to the safety of their staff, it is important to change some of their … Learn More

This tool is an interactive map linking nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation outcomes based on a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

A deep dive into three areas for business action:1 Responsible Marketing 2 Accelerating Collaborative Action at the Country Level 3 Building Resilience and Good Practice Solutions for Business Learn More

This report explores the possibilities of scaling a circular economy, given the reality of the global economy and the complexity of multi-tier supply chains. Learn More

Developers: World Economic Forum

This page brings together water and sanitation-related information from UN-Water Members and Partners in the light of the coronavirus global emergency. UN-Water is working to ensure the most up-to-date information, resources, and guidance as they become available. Learn More

As the world’s largest corporate sustainability initiative, the United Nations Global Compact is calling on business leaders everywhere to unite to support workers, communities, and companies affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. A coordinated international plan involving the business sector will … Learn More

Water is the lifeblood of California, providing for the household needs of 40 million people and supporting one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world, various commercial and industrial activities, and the health and viability of the state’s … Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

New figures from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP) indicate that WASH services in health care facilities are sub-standard in every region. Learn More

Developers: UNICEF The United Nations Children's Fund

ILO Sectoral Policies and Governance and Tripartism Departments present four self-training modules, which adapt existing ILO training tools on OSH to provide governments, workers and employers with the necessary skills to implement the general principles contained in relevant ILO instruments. … Learn More

Companies are increasingly setting and pursing ‘water balance targets’ as part of their water stewardship strategies. The seeming simplicity of balance goals can be attractive – “we will restore a volume of water equal to the amount our business consumes.” … Learn More

Developers: WWF

The Water Risk Filter can be used to assess and respond to water related risks for your own operations, suppliers, or growth plans. Learn More

Developers: WWF

To combat the spread of the COVID-19 virus and rebuild our economies during and after the pandemic, collective action on water is essential. Such action can help not only to contain the virus, but also to realize the human right … Learn More

Developers: Pacific Institute

Safely managed water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services are an essential part of preventing and protecting human health during infectious disease outbreaks, including the current COVID-19 pandemic. Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

Outdoor Industry Association (OIA) Learn More

CTCN; UNEP Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Water Witness International; WaterAid; WBCSD Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

UNEP Learn More

IPIECA Learn More

Ecolab Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; Pegasys; Water Witness International; WWF Learn More

The World Bank Learn More

UNEP-DHI Learn More

WBCSD Learn More

UN Water Learn More

OECD Learn More

UNICEF; WHO Learn More

River Threat Netwrok Learn More

CEO Water Mandate; WWF Learn More

Swedish Textile Water Initiative Learn More

Alliance for Water Stewardship Learn More

WaterAid Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

CEO Water Mandate Learn More

McKinsey Learn More

Toilet Board Coalition Learn More

Conservation International Learn More

U.S. General Services Administration Learn More

National Drought Mitigation Center Learn More

UNEP Learn More

USGS Learn More

UN Water Learn More

AT&T; EDF; Global Environmental Management Institute (GEMI) Learn More

Lillian Holmes
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